|< II. The Will and the Understanding||^ The New Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrine ^||IV. Love in general >|
HD 36. Man is so created as to be in the spiritual world and in the natural world at the same time. The spiritual world is where the angels are, and the natural world where men are. As man is so created, there has been given to him an internal and an external; an internal by which he is in the spiritual world, and an external by which he is in the natural world. His internal is what is called the internal man, and his external is what is called the external man.
HD 37. Every man has an internal and an external; but they differ with the good and the evil. With the good, the internal is in heaven, and in its light, and the external is in the world, and in its light, which light with them is illumined by the light of heaven, so that the internal and the external act as one, like the efficient cause and the effect, or like what is prior and what is posterior. But, with the evil, the internal is in the world, and in its light; as is also the external; for which reason they see nothing from the light of heaven, but only from the light of the world, which they call the light of nature. Hence it is that to them the things of heaven are in thick darkness, whilst the things of the world are in light. From this it is manifest that the good have both an internal and an external man, but that the evil have not an internal man, but only an external.
HD 38. The internal man is called the spiritual man, because it is in the light of heaven, which light is spiritual; and the external man is called the natural man, because it is in the light of the world, which light is natural. The man whose internal is in the light of heaven, and whose external is in the let of the world, is a spiritual man as to both; but the man whose internal is not in the light of heaven, but only in the light of the world, in which is his external also, is a natural man as to both. The spiritual man is called in the Word "living," but the natural man is called "dead."
HD 39. The man whose internal is in the light of heaven, and his external in the light of the world, thinks both spiritually and naturally; but then his spiritual thought flows into his natural thought, and is there perceived. But the man whose internal and external are in the light of the world, does not think spiritually, but materially; for he thinks from such things as are in the nature of the world, all which are material. To think spiritually is to think of things themselves as they are in themselves, to see truths in the light of truth, and to perceive goods from the love of good; also, to see the qualities of things, and to perceive their affections, abstractly from matter. But to think materially is to think, see, and perceive them together with matter, and in matter, thus in a gross and obscure manner respectively.
HD 40. The internal spiritual man, regarded in himself, is an angel of heaven; and, also, during his life in the body, is in society with angels, although he does not then know it; and after his separation from the body, he comes among the angels. But the merely natural internal man, regarded in himself, is a spirit, and not an angel; and, also, during his life in the body, is in society with spirits, but with those who are in hell, among whom he also comes after his separation from the body.
HD 41. The interiors, with those who are spiritual men, are also actually elevated towards heaven, for that is what they primarily regard; but the interiors which are of the mind with those who are merely natural, are actually turned to the world, because that is what they primarily regard. The interiors, which are of the mind [mens], are turned with everyone to that which he loves above all things; and the exteriors which are of the mind [animus], are turned the same way as the interiors.
HD 42. They who have only a general idea concerning the internal and the external man, believe that it is the internal man which thinks and wills, and the external which speaks and acts; because to think and to will is internal, and to speak and to act thence is external. But it is to be known that when man thinks intelligently and wills wisely, he then thinks and wills from a spiritual internal; but when man does not think intelligently, and will wisely, he thinks and wills from a natural internal. Consequently, when a man thinks well concerning the Lord and those things which are of the Lord, and well concerning the neighbor, and those things which are of the neighbor, and wills well to them, he then thinks and wills from a spiritual internal, because he then thinks from the faith of truth and from the love of good, thus from heaven. But when man thinks and wills wickedly concerning them, he then thinks and wills from a natural internal, because he thinks and wills from the faith of falsity and from the love of evil, thus from hell. In a word, so far as man is in love to the Lord, and in love towards the neighbor, so far he is in a spiritual internal, from which he thinks and wills, and from which also he speaks and acts; but so far as man is in the love of self, and in the love of the world, so far he is in a natural internal, from which he thinks and wills, and from which also he speaks and acts.
HD 43. It is so provided and ordered by the Lord, that so far as man thinks and wills from heaven, so far the internal spiritual man is opened and formed. It is opened into heaven even to the Lord, and the formation is according to those things which are of heaven. But, on the contrary, so far as man does not think and will from heaven, but from the world, so far the internal spiritual man is closed, and the external is opened. The opening is into the world, and the formation is to those things which are of the world.
HD 44. They with whom the internal spiritual man is opened into heaven to the Lord, are in the light of heaven, and in enlightenment from the Lord, and thence in intelligence and wisdom; these see truth because it is truth, and perceive good because it is good. But they with whom the internal spiritual man is closed, do not know that there is an internal man, and much less what the internal man is; neither do they believe that there is the Divine, nor that there is a life after death; consequently they do not believe the things which are of heaven and of the church. And because they are only in the light of the world and in the enlightenment thence, they believe in nature as the Divine, they see falsity as truth, and they perceive evil as good.
HD 45. He whose internal is so far external, that he believes nothing but what he can see with his eyes and touch with his hands, is called a sensual man; this is the lowest natural man, and is in fallacies concerning all the things which are of the faith of the church.
HD 46. The internal and the external, which have been treated of, are the internal and the external of the spirit of man; his body is only a superadded external, within which they exist; for the body does nothing from itself, but from its spirit which is in it. It is to be known that the spirit of man, after its separation from the body, thinks and wills, speaks and acts, the same as before; to think and to will is its internal, and to speak and to act is its external; concerning which, (HH 234-245, 265-275, 432-444, 453-484).
FROM THE ARCANA COELESTIA
HD 47. Of the internal and the external with man. It is known in the Christian world, that man has an internal and an external, or an internal man and an external man; but it is little known what is the quality of the one and of the other (AC 1889, 1940). The internal man is spiritual, and the external is natural (AC 978, 1015, 4459, 6309, 9701-9709). How the internal man which is spiritual is formed to the image of heaven; and the external which is natural to the image of the world; and man was therefore called by the ancients a microcosm (AC 3628, 4523, 4524, 6057, 6314, 9706, 10156, 10472). Thus in man the spiritual world and natural world are conjoined (AC 6057, 10472). Thence man is such that he can look up towards heaven, and down towards the world (AC 7601, 7604, 7607). When he looks upwards, he is in the light of heaven and sees thence; but when he looks downwards, he is in the light of the world and sees thence (AC 3167, 10134). There is given with man a descent from the spiritual world into the natural (AC 3702, 4042). The internal man which is spiritual, and the external man which is natural, are altogether distinct (AC 1999, 2018, 3691, 4459). The distinction is such as exists between cause and effect, and between prior and posterior, and there is no continuity (AC 3691, 4154, 5145, 5146, 5711, 6275, 6284, 6299, 6326, 6465, 8603, 10076, 10099, 10181). Consequently that the distinction is like that between heaven and the world, or between the spiritual and the natural (AC 4292, 5032, 5620, 5639). The interiors and exteriors of man are not continuous, but distinct according to degrees, and each degree is terminated (AC 3691, 4145, 5114, 6326, 6465, 8603, 10099). He who does not perceive the distinctions of the interiors and the exteriors of man according to degrees, and does not understand the quality of those degrees, cannot comprehend the internal and the external of man (AC 5146, 6465, 10099, 10181). The things of a higher degree are more perfect than those of a lower degree (AC 3405). There are three degrees in man answering to the three heavens (AC 4154). The exteriors are more remote from the Divine with man, and therefore they are respectively obscure, and of a general nature (AC 6451). And they are also respectively not in order (AC 996, 3855). The interiors are more perfect, because nearer to the Divine (AC 5146, 5147). In the internal there are thousands and thousands of things, which in the external appear as one general thing (AC 5707). Thence thought and perception is clearer in proportion as it is interior (AC 5920). Hence it follows that man ought to be in internals (AC 1175, 4464). The interiors of the mind, with the man who is in love and charity, are actually elevated by the Lord, and otherwise they would look downwards (AC 6952, 6954, 10330). Influx and enlightenment from heaven with man, is an actual elevation of the interiors by the Lord (AC 7816, 10330). Man is elevated when he advances to spiritual things (AC 9922). As far as man is elevated from externals towards interiors, so far he comes into light, consequently into intelligence; and this is what is meant by being withdrawn from sensual things, according to the saying of the ancients (AC 6183, 6313). Elevation from the external to the interiors, is like that from mist into light (AC 4598). Influx from the Lord is through the internal man into the external (AC 1940, 5119). Interiors can flow into exteriors, but not the contrary; consequently that influx is spiritual and not physical, namely, from the spiritual man into the natural, and not from the natural man into the spiritual (AC 3219, 5119, 5259, 5427, 5428, 5477, 6322, 9109, 9110). The Lord from the internal, where there is peace, governs the external, where there is turbulence (AC 5396). The internal can see all things in the external, but not the reverse (AC 1914, 1953, 5427, 5428, 5477). When man lives in the world, he thinks from the internal in the external, consequently his spiritual thought flows into his natural, and there presents itself naturally (AC 3679). When man thinks well, it is from the internal or spiritual in the external or natural (AC 9704, 9705, 9707). The external man thinks and wills according to conjunction with the internal (AC 9702, 9703). There is an interior and an exterior thought; the quality of the one and the other (AC 2515, 2552, 5127, 5141, 5168, 6007). The thought and affection in the internal is not perceived by man during his life in the world, but only that which is in the external therefrom (AC 10236, 10240). But in the other life externals are taken away, and man is then let into his own internals (AC 8870). It then becomes manifest what is the quality of his internals (AC 1806, 1807). The internal produces the external (AC 994, 995). And the internal then invests itself with such things as enable it to produce its effects in the external (AC 6275, 6284, 6299); and by which it may live in the external (AC 1175, 6275). The Lord conjoins the internal or spiritual man to the external or natural man, when He regenerates him (AC 1577, 1594, 1904, 1999). The external or natural man is then reduced into order through the internal or spiritual man, and is subordinated (AC 9708). The external must be subordinate and subject to the internal (AC 5077, 5125, 5128, 5786, 5947, 10272). The external is so created, that it may serve the internal (AC 5947). The internal must be lord, and the external its minister, and in a certain respect its servant (AC 10471). The external ought to be in correspondence with the internal, that there may be conjunction (AC 5427, 5428, 5477). What the quality of the external is when it corresponds with the internal, and what when it does not correspond (AC 3493, 5422, 5423, 5427, 5428, 5477, 5511). In the external man there are things which correspond and agree with the internal, and there are things which do not correspond and agree (AC 1563, 1568). The external has its quality from the internal (AC 9912, 9921, 9922). How great the beauty of the external man is, when it is conjoined with the internal (AC 1590). And how great its foulness when not conjoined (AC 1598). Love to the Lord and charity towards the neighbor conjoin the external man with the internal (AC 1594). Unless the internal man he conjoined with the external, there is no fructification (AC 3987). The interiors successively flow into the exteriors, even into the extreme or ultimate, and they there exist and subsist together (AC 634, 6239, 9215, 9216). They not only flow in successively, but also form in the ultimate what is simultaneous, in what order (AC 5897, 6451, 8603, 10099). All the interiors are held in connection from the first, through the ultimate (AC 9828). Thence also in the ultimates are strength and power (AC 9836). And therefore responses and revelations were made from the ultimates (AC 9905, 10548). Thence also the ultimate is more holy than the interiors (AC 9824). Hence also in the Word, "first and last" signify all and every particular, thus the whole (AC 10044, 10329, 10335). The internal man is open to him who is in Divine order, but shut to him who is not in Divine order (AC 8513). There is no conjunction of heaven with the external man without the internal (AC 9380). Evils and the falsities of evil shut the internal man, and cause man to be only in externals (AC 1587, 10492). Especially evils from the love of self (AC 1594). The interiors are shut even to the sensual, which is the ultimate, if the Divine is denied (AC 6564). With the intelligent and learned of the world, who from the sciences confirm themselves against the things of heaven and the church, the internal is shut more than with the simple (AC 10492). Because the internal man is in the light of heaven, and the external in the light of the world, therefore they who are in the external without the internal, that is, they with whom the internal is shut, do not care for the internal things of heaven and the church (AC 4464, 4946). In the other life they cannot at all endure internal things (AC 10694, 10701, 10707). They believe nothing (AC 10396, 10400, 10411, 10429). They love themselves and the world above all things (AC 10407, 10412, 10420). Their interiors, or the things which are of their thought and affection, are vile, filthy, and profane, howsoever they may appear in externals (AC 1182, 7046, 9705, 9707). The ideas of their thought are material, and not at all spiritual (AC 10582). The quality further described of those whose internal that looks heaven ward, is shut (AC 4459, 9709, 10284, 10286, 10429, 10472, 10492, 10602, 10683). So far as the internal, which is spiritual, is opened, so far truths and goods are multiplied; and so far as the internal, which is spiritual, is shut, so far truths and goods vanish (AC 4099). The church is in the internal spiritual man, because that is in heaven, and not in the external without it (AC 10698). Hence the external church with man is nothing without the internal (AC 1795). External worship without internal worship is no worship (AC 1094, 1175). Concerning those who are in the internal of the church, of worship, and of the Word; of those who are in the external in which is the internal; and of those who are in the external without the internal (AC 10683). The external without the internal is hard (AC 10683). The merely natural man is in hell, unless he be made spiritual by regeneration (AC 10156). All who are in the external without the internal, or with whom the spiritual internal is shut, are in hell (AC 9128, 10483, 10489). The interiors of man are actually turned according to his loves (AC 10702). In each and all things there must be an internal and an external that they may subsist (AC 9473). "Above" and "high" in the Word, signifies the internal (AC 1725, 2148, 4210, 4599). Thence in the Word higher is interior, and lower is exterior (AC 3084).
HD 48. Of the natural and the spiritual. How perverse it is that the world at this day attributes so much to nature, and so little to the Divine (AC 3483). Why it is so (AC 5116). When nevertheless each and every particular in nature not only exists, but likewise continually subsists from the Divine, and through the spiritual world (AC 775, 8211). Divine, celestial, and spiritual things terminate in nature (AC 4240, 4939). Nature is the ultimate plane whereon they stand (AC 4240, 5651, 6275, 6284, 6299, 9216). Celestial, spiritual, and natural things follow and succeed each other in order; so do Divine things with them, because they are from the Divine (AC 880, 4938, 4939, 9992, 10005, 10017, 10068). Celestial things are the head, spiritual things the body, and natural things the feet (AC 4938, 4939). They also inflow in an order similar to that wherein they follow and succeed each other (AC 4938, 4939). The good of the inmost or third heaven is called celestial, the good of the middle or second heaven is called spiritual, and the good of the ultimate or first heaven is called spiritual natural, whence it may be known what is the celestial, spiritual, and natural (AC 4279, 4286, 4938, 4939, 9992, 10005, 10017, 10068); and (HH 20-28, 29-40). All things of the natural world are from the Divine through the spiritual world (AC 5013). Consequently the spiritual is in every natural thing, just as the efficient cause is in the effect (AC 3562, 5711); or as effort is in motion (AC 5173), and as the internal is in the external (AC 3562, 5326, 5711). And since the cause is the very essential in the effect, as effort is in motion, and the internal in the external; hence it follows, that the spiritual, and consequently the Divine is the very essential in the natural (AC 2987-3002, 9701-9709). Spiritual things are presented to view in the natural, and the things manifested are representatives and correspondences (AC 1632, 2987-3002). Hence all nature is a theatre representative of the spiritual world, that is, of heaven (AC 2758, 2999, 3000, 4939, 8848, 9280). All things in nature are disposed in order and series according to ends (AC 4104). This is from the spiritual world, that is, from heaven, because ends, which are uses, reign there (AC 454, 696, 1103, 3645, 4054, 7038). Man is so created that Divine things descending according to order into nature, may be perceived in him (AC 3702). With every man, who is in Divine order, there is an internal and an external, his internal is called the spiritual, or the spiritual man, and his external is called the natural, or the natural man (AC 978, 1015, 4459, 6309, 9701-9709). The spiritual man is in the light of heaven, and the natural man in the light of the world (AC 5965). The natural man can discern nothing from himself, but from the spiritual (AC 5286). The natural is like a face in which the interiors see themselves, and thus man thinks (AC 5165). The spiritual man thinks in the natural, consequently naturally, so far as it comes to the sensual perception of the natural (AC 3679, 5165, 6284, 6299). The natural is the plane, in which the spiritual terminates (AC 5651, 6275, 6284, 6299, 9216). The spiritual sees nothing, unless the natural be in correspondence (AC 3493, 3620, 3623). The spiritual or internal man can see what is being done in the natural or external, but not the contrary, because the spiritual flows into the natural, and not the natural into the spiritual (AC 3219, 4667, 5119, 5259, 5427, 5428, 5477, 6322, 9109, 9110). The natural man from his own light, which is called the light [lumen] of nature, knows nothing concerning God, nor concerning heaven, nor concerning the life after death; neither does he believe, if he hears of such things, unless spiritual light, which is light from heaven, flows into that natural light [lumen] (AC 8944). The natural man of himself, by birth, is opposite to the spiritual man (AC 3913, 3928). Therefore as long as they are opposite to each other, man feels it grievous to think of spiritual and celestial things, but delightful to think of natural and corporeal things (AC 4096). He nauseates the things of heaven, and even the bare mention of anything spiritual, from experience (AC 5006, 9109). Merely natural men regard spiritual good and truth as a servant (AC 5013, 5025). When nevertheless the natural man ought to be subordinate to the spiritual man, and serve him (AC 3019, 5168). The spiritual man is said to serve the natural, when the latter from the intellectual principle seeks confirmations of the objects of his concupiscence, particularly from the Word (AC 3019, 5013, 5025, 5168). How merely natural men appear in another life, and what is the quality of their state and lot there (AC 4630, 4633, 4940-4952, 5032, 5571). The truths, which are in the natural man, are called scientifics and knowledges (AC 3293). The imagination of the natural man, when viewed in itself, is material, and his affections are like those of beasts (AC 3020). But there is a genuine thinking and imaginative principle from the internal or spiritual man, then the natural man sees, acts, and lives therefrom (AC 3493, 5422, 5423, 5427, 5428, 5477, 5510). The things which are in the natural man, respectively to those which are in the spiritual man, are general (AC 3513, 5707); and consequently obscure (AC 6686). There is an interior and an exterior natural with man (AC 3293, 3294, 3793, 5118, 5126, 5497, 5649). There is also a medium between them (AC 4570, 9216). The discharges of the spiritual man are made into the natural, and by it (AC 9572). They who do good merely from a natural disposition, and not from religion, are not received in heaven (AC 8002, 8772).
HD 49. Of the light of heaven in which the spiritual man is. There is great light in the heavens (AC 1117, 1521, 1533, 1619-1632). The light in the heavens exceeds the meridian light on earth by many degrees (AC 1117, 1521, 4527, 5400, 8644). That light has been often seen by me (AC 1522, 4527, 7174). The light which the angels of the inmost or third heaven have is as the light from the sun, but the light which the angels of the second heaven have is as the light from the moon (AC 1529, 1530). The light in the inmost heaven is flamy, but in the second heaven it is bright white (AC 9570). All light in the heavens is from the Lord as a sun there (AC 1053, 1521, 3195, 3341, 3636, 3643, 4415, 9548, 9684, 10809). The Lord is the sun of the angelic heaven, and His Divine love is that sun (AC 1521, 1529, 1530, 1531, 183’, 4321, 4696, 7078, 7083, 7173). The Divine truth proceeding from the Lord it the heavens appears as light, and constitutes all the light of heaven; and consequently that light is spiritual light (AC 3195, 3322, 5400, 8644, 9399, 9548, 9684). Therefore the Lord in the Word is called light (AC 3195). Because that light is the Divine truth, there is in it Divine wisdom and intelligence (AC 3195, 3485, 3636, 3643, 3993, 4302, 4413, 4415, 9548, 9684). How light from the Lord flows into the heavens, illustrated by the circles of rays round the sun (AC 9407). The Lord is a sun to the heavens, and from Him is all the light there, (HH 116-125). And the light from that sun is the Divine truth, and the heat from it the Divine good of the Divine love (HH 126-140). The light of heaven enlightens both the sight and the understanding of angels and spirits (AC 2776, 3138). They have light there according to their understanding and wisdom (AC 1524, 3339). Testified from the Word (AC 1529, 1530). There are as many differences of light in the heavens as there are angelic societies (AC 4414); since there are perpetual varieties in the heavens as to good and truth, thus as to wisdom and intelligence (AC 684, 690, 3241, 3744, 3745, 5598, 7236, 7833, 7836). Heaven‘s being in light and heat signifies its being in wisdom and in love (AC 3643, 9399, 9400). The light of heaven enlightens the understanding of man (AC 1524, 3138, 3167, 4408, 6608, 8707, 9128, 9399, 10569). Man, when he is elevated from the sensual comes into a milder light [lumen], and at length into celestial light [lux] (AC 6313, 6315, 9407). There is elevation into the light of heaven when man comes into intelligence (AC 3190). What great light was perceived, when I have been withdrawn from worldly ideas (AC 1526, 6608). The sight of the internal man is in the light of heaven, and therefore man is able to think analytically and rationally (AC 1532). The light of heaven from the Lord is always present with man, but it flows in only so far as he is in truths from good (AC 4060, 4214). That light is according to truth from good (AC 3094). Truths shine in the spiritual world (AC 5219). Spiritual heat and spiritual light make the true life of man (AC 6032). The light of the world is for the external man, and the light of heaven for the internal (AC 3223, 3324, 3337). The light of heaven flows into natural light [lumen] and the natural man is so far wise as he receives that light (AC 4302, 4408). There is a correspondence between those lights (AC 3225). The things which are in the light of heaven cannot be seen from the light of the world with man, which is called his natural light [lumen]; but the things in the light of the world may be seen from the light of heaven (AC 9577). Whence it follows, that they who are only in the light of the world, which is called natural light [lumen], do not perceive those things which are of the light of heaven (AC 3108). To those who are in falsities from evil, the light of heaven is thick darkness (AC 1783, 3337, 3413, 4060, 6907, 8197). The light of the world with the evil is glowing, and so far as it glows, so far the things which are of the light of heaven are dark to them (AC 6907). The light of the world does not appear to the angels (AC 1521, 1783, 1880). In the heavens all light is from the Lord, and all shade from the ignorance and proprium of the angels and spirits; hence the modifications and variegations of light and shade, which are colors there (AC 3341). Concerning the variegations of light by the Urim and Thummim (AC 3862). The light of those who are in faith separate from charity is snowy, and like the light of winter (AC 3412, 3413). That light is turned into mere darkness on the influx of light from heaven (AC 3412). Of the light of those who are in a persuasive faith, and in a life of evil (AC 4416). Of what quality the light appears with those who are in intelligence from the proprium, and what with those who are in intelligence from the Lord (AC 4419). There is light [lumen] in the hells, but fatuous (AC 1528, 3340, 4214, 4418, 4531). This light is as light from a coal fire (AC 1528, 4418, 4531). They who are in the hells appear to themselves in their own light as men, but in the light of heaven as devils and monsters (AC 4532, 4533, 4674, 5057, 5058, 6605, 6626). All things in the light of heaven appear according to their true quality (AC 4674). The hells are said to be in thick darkness and darkness, because they are in falsities from evils (AC 3340, 4418, 4531). "Darkness" signifies falsities, and "thick darkness" the falsity of evil (AC 1839, 1860, 7688, 7711).
HD 50. Of the sensual man, who is the lowest degree natural (n. 45). The sensual is the ultimate of the life of man, adhering to and inhering in his corporeal (AC 5077, 5767, 9212, 9216, 9331, 9730). He who judges and concludes concerning everything from the bodily senses, and who believes nothing but what he can see with his eyes and touch with his hands, saying that these are something, and rejecting all things else, is a sensual man (AC 5094, 7693). Such a man thinks in outmosts, and not interiorly in himself (AC 5089, 5094, 6564, 7693). His interiors are shut, so that he sees nothing of truth therein (AC 6564, 6844, 6845). In a word, he is in gross natural light, and thus perceives nothing which is from the light of heaven (AC 6201, 6310, 6564, 6598, 6612, 6614, 6622, 6624, 6844, 6845). Consequently he is interiorly against the things which are of heaven and the church (AC 6201, 6316, 6844, 6845, 6948, 6949). The learned, who have confirmed themselves against the truths of the church, are sensual (AC 6316). Sensual men reason sharply and shrewdly, because their thought is so near their speech as to be almost in it, and because they place all intelligence in discourse from the memory alone (AC 195, 196, 5700, 10236). But they reason from the fallacies of the senses, with which the common people are captivated (AC 5084, 6948, 6949, 7693). Sensual men are more crafty and malicious than others (AC 7693, 10236). The avaricious, adulterers, the voluptuous, and the deceitful especially are sensual (AC 6310). Their interiors are foul and filthy (AC 6201). By means thereof they communicate with the hells (AC 6311). They who are in the hells are sensual in proportion to their depth (AC 4623, 6311). The sphere of infernal spirits conjoins itself with man’s sensual from behind (AC 6312). They who reasoned from the sensual, and thereby against the truths of faith, were called by the ancients serpents of the tree of knowledge (AC 195-197, 6398, 6949, 10313). The sensual of man, and the sensual man himself, is further described (AC 10236). And the extension of the sensual with man (AC 9731). Sensual things ought to be in the last place, not in the first, and with a wise and intelligent man they are in the last place and subject to the interiors; but with an unwise man they are in the first place, and have dominion; these are they who are properly called sensual (AC 5077, 5125, 5128, 7645). If sensual things are in the last place, and are subject to the interiors, a way is opened through them to the understanding, and truths are refined by a kind of extraction (AC 5580). The sensual things of man stand nearest to the world, and admit things that flow from the world, and as it were sift them (AC 9726). The external or natural man communicates with the world by means of those sensual, and with heaven by means of rationals (AC 4009). Thus sensual things administer those things which are serviceable to the interiors of man (AC 5077, 5081). There are sensual things ministering to the intellectual part, and likewise to the will part (AC 5077). Unless the thought is elevated from sensual things, man possesses but little wisdom (AC 5089). A wise man thinks above the sensual (AC 5089, 5094). Man, when his thought is elevated above sensual things, comes into a clearer light [lumen], and at length into heavenly light [lux] (AC 6183, 6313, 6315, 9407, 9730, 9922). Elevation above sensual things, and withdrawal from them, was known to the ancients (AC 6313). Man with his spirit may see the things which are in the spiritual world, if he can be withdrawn from the sensual things of the body, and elevated by the Lord into the light of heaven (AC 4622). The reason is, because the body does not feel, but the spirit in the body; and so far as the spirit perceives in the body, so far is the perception gross and obscure, consequently in darkness; but so far as not in the body, so far is the perception clear and in the light (AC 4622, 6614, 6622). The ultimate of the understanding is the sensual scientific, and the ultimate of the will the sensual delight, concerning which see (AC 9996). What is the difference between the sensual things that are common with beasts, and those that are not common with them (AC 10236). There are sensual men who are not evil, inasmuch as their interiors are not so much closed; concerning whose state in another life (AC 6311).
HD 51. Of sciences and knowledges, by which the internal spiritual man is opened. Those things are called scientifics, which are in the external or natural man, and its memory, but not those which are in the internal or spiritual man (AC 3019, 3020, 3293, 3309, 4967, 9918, 9922). Scientifics, as belonging to the external or natural man, are respectively instruments of service, inasmuch as the external or natural man is made to serve the internal or spiritual man, just as the world is made to serve heaven (AC 5077, 5125, 5128, 5786, 5947, 10272, 10471). The external man is respectively the world, because the laws of Divine order existing in the world are inscribed therein; and the internal man is respectively heaven, because the laws of Divine order existing in heaven are inscribed therein (AC 4523, 4524, 5368, 6013, 6057, 9278, 9279, 9283, 9709, 10156, 10472); and (HH 51-58). There are scientifics which concern natural things, scientifics which relate to the civil state and life, scientifics which relate to the moral state and life, and scientifics which relate to the spiritual state and life (AC 5774, 5934). But for distinction‘s sake, those which relate to the spiritual state and life are called knowledges, consisting principally of doctrinals (AC 9945). Man ought to be imbued with sciences and knowledges, since by these he learns to think, then to understand what is true and good (AC 129, 1450, 1451, 1453, 1548, 1802). Scientifics and knowledges are the first things, on which is built and founded the civil, moral, and spiritual life of man; but they are to be learned for the sake of the use of life as their end (AC 1489, 3310). Knowledges open the way to the internal man, and then conjoin it with the external according to uses (AC 1563, 1616). The rational is born by sciences and knowledges (AC 1895, 1900, 3086). Yet not by sciences and knowledges themselves, but by the affection of uses from them, and according to such affection (AC 1895). The internal man is opened and successively perfected by sciences and knowledges, provided man has some good use for an end, particularly a use that regards eternal life (AC 3086). Then the scientifics and knowledges which are in the natural man meet the spiritual things from the celestial and spiritual man and adopt those which agree (AC 1495). Uses of heavenly life are then extracted, refined, and elevated by the Lord, through the internal man, from the scientifics and knowledges which are in the natural man (AC 1895, 1896, 1900-1902, 5871, 5874, 5901). And the scientifics which are incongruous and adverse are rejected to the sides and exterminated (AC 5871, 5886, 5889). The sight of the internal man calls nothing forth from the scientifics and knowledges of the external man, but such as are of its love (AC 9394). Scientifics and knowledges are disposed in bundles, and conjoined according to the loves which introduced them (AC 5881). Then in the sight of the internal man, those which are of the love are in the middle and in clearness, but those which are not of the love are at the sides and in obscurity (AC 6068, 6084). Scientifics and knowledges with man are successively implanted in his loves, and dwell in them (AC 6325). Man would be born into every science, and thereby into intelligence, if he were born into love to the Lord and love towards the neighbor; but because he is born into the love of self and the world, he is born in total ignorance (AC 6323, 6325). Science, intelligence, and wisdom are the sons of love to the Lord and of love towards the neighbor (AC 1226, 2049, 2116). Scientifics and knowledges, because they are of the external or natural man, are in the light of the world; but truths, which are become truths of love and faith, and have thus obtained life, are in the light of heaven (AC 5212). Nevertheless the truths, which have thus obtained life, are comprehended by man through natural ideas (AC 5510). Spiritual influx is through the internal man into the scientifics and knowledges which are in the external (AC 1940, 8005). Scientifics and knowledges are the receptacles and as it were the vessels of the truth and good of the internal man (AC 1469, 1496, 3068, 5489, 6004, 6023, 6052, 6071, 6077, 7770, 9922). Therefore by "vessels" ia the Word, in the spiritual sense, are signified scientifics and knowledges (AC 3068, 3069, 3079, 9394, 9544, 9723, 9724). Scientifics are as it were mirrors, in which the truths and goods of the internal man appear, and are perceived as in an image (AC 5201). And there they are together as in their ultimate (AC 5373, 5874, 5886, 5901, 6004, 6023, 6052, 6071, 6077). Scientifics, because they are in the light of the world, are involved and obscure respectively to those things which are in the light of heaven; thus the things which are in the external man respectively to those in the internal (AC 2831). For which reason also by "involved" in the Word is signified what is scientific (AC 2831). So also by "the obscurity of a cloud" (AC 8443, 10551). Every principle is to be drawn from the truths of doctrine from the Word, which are first to be acknowledged, and then it is allowable to consult scientifics in order to confirm those truths, and thus they are corroborated (AC 6047). Thus it is allowable for those who are in the affirmative concerning the truths of faith, intellectually to confirm them by scientifics; but not for those who are in the negative, because a preceding affirmative draws all to favor its side, and a preceding negative draws all to its side (AC 2568, 2588, 3913, 4760, 6047). There is a doubting affirmative, and a doubting negative, the former with some who are good, and the latter with the evil (AC 2568). To enter from the truths of faith into scientifics is according to order; but on the other hand, to enter from scientifics into the truths of faith is contrary to order (AC 10236). In as much as influx is spiritual, and not physical or natural, thus from the truths of faith, because these are spiritual, into scientifics, because these are natural (AC 3219, 5119, 5259, 5427, 5428, 5478, 6322, 9109, 9110). Whoever is in a doubting negative, which in itself is a negative, and says that he will not believe until he is persuaded by scientifics, will never believe (AC 2094, 2832). They who do so, become insane as to those things which are of the church and heaven (AC 128-130). They fall into the falsities of evil (AC 232, 233, 6047). And in the other life, when they think about spiritual things, they are as it were drunken (AC 1072). A further description of them (AC 196). Examples to illustrate that spiritual things cannot be comprehended, if the order of entering into them be inverted (AC 233, 2094, 2196, 2203, 2209). Many of the learned are more insane in spiritual things, than the simple, because they are in the negative, and have abundance of scientifics, by which they confirm the negative (AC 4760). An example of a learned man, who could understand nothing concerning spiritual life (AC 8629). They who reason from scientifics against the truths of faith, reason sharply, inasmuch as they do it from the fallacies of the senses, which captivate and persuade, for it is with difficulty these can be shaken off (AC 5700). They who understand nothing of truth, and they also who are in evil, can reason concerning the truths and goods of faith, and yet be in no enlightenment (AC 4214). Only to confirm a dogma, is not the part of an intelligent man, because falsity can be as easily confirmed as the truth (AC 1017, 2482, 2490, 4741, 5033, 6865, 7012, 7680, 7950, 8521, 8780). They who reason concerning the truths of the church, whether a thing be so or not, are evidently in obscurity respecting truths, and not yet in spiritual light (AC 215, 1385, 3033, 3428). There are scientifics which admit Divine truths, and others which do not (AC 5213). Vain scientifics ought to be destroyed (AC 1489, 1492, 1499, 1500). Those are vain scientifics which regard for their end and confirm the loves of self and the world, and which withdraw from love to the Lord and love towards the neighbor because such scientifics shut up the internal man, so that he is not then capable of receiving anything from heaven (AC 1563, 1600). Scientifics are the means of becoming wise, and the means of becoming insane; and by them the internal man is either opened or shut; and thus the rational is either cultivated or destroyed (AC 4156, 8628, 9922). Sciences after death are of no account, but only those things which man has imbibed in his understanding and life by means of sciences (AC 2480). Nevertheless all scientifics remain after death, but they are quiescent (AC 2476-2479, 2481-2486). The same scientifics which with the evil are falsities because applied to evils, with the good are truths, because applied to goods (AC 6917). Scientific truths with the evil are not truths, however they may appear as truths when spoken, because within them there is evil, and consequently they are falsified; and the science of those men by no means deserves to be called science, inasmuch as it is destitute of life (AC 10331). It is one thing to be wise, another to understand, another to know, and another to do; but still, with those who are in spiritual life, they follow in order, and correspond, and are together in doing or in deeds (AC 10331). It is also one thing to know, another to acknowledge, and another to have faith (AC 896). What is the quality of the desire of knowing, which spirits have, shown by an example (AC 1973). Angels have an immense desire of knowing and of becoming wise, inasmuch is science, intelligence and wisdom, are spiritual food (AC 3114, 4459, 4792, 4976, 5147, 5293, 5340, 5342, 5410, 5426, 5576, 5582, 5588, 5655, 6277, 8562, 9003). The chief science with the ancients was the science of correspondences, but at this day it is lost (AC 3021, 3419, 4280, 4844, 4964, 4966, 6004, 7729, 10252). The science of correspondences flourished with the orientals, and in Egypt (AC 5702, 6692, 7097, 7779, 9391, 10407). Thence came their hieroglyphics (AC 6692, 7097). The ancients by the science of correspondences introduced themselves into the knowledges of spiritual things (AC 4749, 4844, 4966). The Word is written by mere correspondences, whence its internal or spiritual sense, the existence of which cannot be known without the science of correspondences, nor can the quality of the Word (AC 3131, 3472-3485, 8615, 10687). How much the science of correspondences excels other sciences (AC 4280).
HD 52. Of the natural memory, which is of the external man, and of the spiritual memory, which is of the internal man. Man has two memories, an exterior and an interior memory, or a natural and a spiritual memory (AC 2469-2494). Man does not know that he has an interior memory (AC 2470, 2471). How much the interior memory excels the exterior memory (AC 2473). The things in the exterior memory are in natural light, but the things in the interior memory, in spiritual light (AC 5212). It is from the interior memory that man is able to think and speak intellectually and rationally (AC 9394). All and every particular which man has thought, spoken and done, and all that he has heard and seen, are inscribed on his interior memory (AC 2474, 7398). That memory is man’s book of life (AC 2474, 9386, 9841, 10505). In the interior memory are the truths which are become of faith, and the goods which are become of love (AC 5212, 8067). The things which are rendered habitual, and have become of the life, are in the interior memory (AC 9394, 9723, 9841). Scientifics and knowledges are of the exterior memory (AC 5212, 9922). They are very obscure and involved, respectively to those things which are of the interior memory (AC 2831). The languages which man speaks in the world are from the exterior memory (AC 2472, 2476). Spirits and angels speak from the interior memory, and consequently their language is universal, being such that all can converse together, of whatever land they may be (AC 2472, 2476, 2490, 2493); concerning which language, (HH 234-245); and concerning the wonders of the interior memory; which remains with man after death (HH 463).
HD 53. Of the fallacies of the senses, in which merely natural and sensual men are, mentioned above in this doctrine (n. 45). Merely natural and sensual men think and reason from the fallacies of the senses (AC 5084, 5700, 6948, 6949, 7693). Of what quality the fallacies of the senses are (AC 5084, 5094, 6400, 6948). To which the following particulars shall be added. There are fallacies of the senses in things natural, civil, moral, and spiritual, and many in each of them; but here I design to recite some of the fallacies in spiritual things. He who thinks from the fallacies of the senses, cannot understand: (1). That man after death can appear as a man; nor that he can enjoy his senses as before; nor consequently that angels have such a capacity. (2). They think that the soul is only a vital something, purely etherial, of which no idea can be formed. (3). That it is the body alone which feels, sees, and hears. (4). That man is like a beast, with this difference only, that he can speak from thought. (5). That nature is all, and the first source from which all things proceed. (6). That man imbues and learns to think by an influx of interior nature and its order. (7). That there is no spiritual, and if it is, that it is a purer natural. (8). That man cannot enjoy any blessedness, if deprived of the delights of the love of glory, honor, or gain. (9). That conscience is only a disease of the mind, proceeding from the infinity of the body and from not having success. (10). That the Divine love of the Lord is the love of glory. (11). That there is no providence, but that all things come to pass from one‘s own prudence and intelligence. (12). That honors and riches are real blessings which are given by God. Not to mention many other things of a similar nature. Such are the fallacies of the senses in spiritual things. Hence it may appear, that heavenly things cannot be comprehended by those who are merely natural and sensual. Those are merely natural and sensual whose internal spiritual man is shut, and whose natural only is open.
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