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I. WITHOUT A KNOWLEDGE OF THE SPIRITUAL SENSE OF THE WORD, NO ONE CAN KNOW WHAT THE TWO SACRAMENTS, BAPTISM AND THE HOLY SUPPER, INVOLVE AND EFFECT
TCR 667. That there is a spiritual sense in each thing and everything of the Word, and that this sense hitherto has been unknown, but has now been disclosed for the sake of the New Church which is to be established by the Lord, has been shown in the chapter on the Sacred Scripture. The nature of that sense can be seen both in that chapter and in the chapter on the Decalogue, which is explained according to that sense. If that sense were not disclosed who could think of the two sacraments, baptism and the holy supper, except in accordance with the natural sense, that is, the sense of the letter? And in that case he would say or murmur to himself, "Is baptism anything but pouring water upon a child's head, and what has that to do with salvation? And is the holy supper anything but a partaking of bread and wine, and does it contribute anything to salvation? Moreover, where is the holiness in them, except from their having been commanded by the ecclesiastical order and accepted as holy and Divine?" And yet in themselves they are mere ceremonies, which, the churches assert, become sacraments when to these elements the aid of God is added. I appeal to the laity, and also to the clergy, whether in spirit and heart they have had any other conception of these two sacraments, and whether they have not cherished them as Divine from a variety of causes and reasons, and yet these two sacraments, viewed in the spiritual sense, are the holiest things of worship, as will appear hereafter when their uses come to be treated of. But it is impossible for the uses of these two sacraments to enter the mind of anyone, unless those uses are disclosed and set forth by the spiritual sense; therefore it follows that without that sense no one can know that the sacraments are anything more than ceremonies, which are holy because instituted by commandment.
TCR 668. That baptism was commanded is made clearly evident by John's baptizing in Jordan, to which Jerusalem and all Judea went out (Matt. 3:5, 6; Mark 1:4, 5); also by this, that the Lord our Saviour Himself was baptized by John (Matt. 3:13-17); and finally that He commanded His disciples to baptize all nations (Matt. 28:19). Who that wishes to see it, does not see that there is something Divine in that institution, which has hitherto been concealed, because the spiritual sense of the Word has not before been revealed? And this sense is now revealed, because the Christian church, such as it is in itself, is just now in its very beginning. The former church was Christian in name only, not in fact and essence.
TCR 669. The two sacraments, baptism and the holy supper, are in the Christian church like two gems in the scepter of a king; but if their uses are unknown are merely like two figures of ebony on a staff. These two sacraments in the Christian church may also be likened to two rubies or carbuncles on the robe of an emperor, but if their uses are unknown they are like two carnelians or crystals on a cloak. Without a revelation by means of the spiritual sense of the uses of these two sacraments, there would be nothing but scattered conjectures about them, like the conjectures of those who practise divination by the stars, or even of those who in old times drew auguries from entrails or the flight of birds. The uses of these two sacraments may be likened to a temple, which by reason of its antiquity has sunk into the ground, and lies buried in the surrounding rubbish even to the roof, over which old and young walk and ride in carriages or on horses, not knowing that such a temple is hidden beneath their feet, in which are altars of gold, walls inlaid with silver, and decorations of precious stones. And these treasures can be dug up and brought to light only by means of the spiritual sense, which is now disclosed for the New Church, for its use in the worship of the Lord. Again, these sacraments may be likened to a double temple, one below, the other above. In the lower one the gospel of the Lord's new coming and of regeneration and consequent salvation by Him is preached; and from this temple, near the altar, there is a way of ascent to the higher temple, where the holy supper is celebrated; and from it is the passage into heaven, where those ascending are received by the Lord. Again, they may be likened to a tabernacle, in which after entering there are seen the table on which the bread of faces is arranged in its order, also the golden altar for incense, and between these the candlestick with its lighted lamps, by which all these things are made visible; and at length, for those who suffer themselves to be illuminated, the veil is opened to the holy of holies, where, instead of the ark, which formerly contained the Decalogue, the Word is placed, over which is the mercy-seat with the golden cherubs. These things are representations of the two sacraments and their uses.
II. THE WASHING THAT IS CALLED BAPTISM MEANS SPIRITUAL WASHING, WHICH IS PURIFICATION FROM EVILS AND FALSITIES, AND THUS REGENERATION
TCR 670. That washings were commanded the children of Israel is known from the statutes enacted by Moses,
That Aaron should wash himself before putting on the robes of his ministry (Lev. 16:4, 24);
And before coming near to the altar to minister (Ex. 30:18-21; 40:30-32);
Also the Levites (Num. 8:6, 7);
And likewise others who had become unclean through sins; and are said to be sanctified by washings (Ex. 29:1, 4; 40:12; Lev. 8:6).
Therefore in order that they might wash themselves, the molten sea, and many baths were placed near the temple (1 Kings 7:23-39);
They even washed vessels and utensils, such as tables, seats, beds, plates and cups (Lev. 11:32; 14:8, 9; 15:5-12; 17:15, 16; Matt. 23:25, 26).
But washings and many like things were enjoined upon and commanded the children of Israel, because the church instituted among them was a representative church, and this was such as to prefigure the Christian church that was to come. Therefore when the Lord came into the world, He annuled representatives, which were all external, and instituted a church all things of which were to be internal; thus the Lord banished figures, and revealed the veritable forms, as one withdraws a veil or opens a door and causes interiors not only to be seen, but also to be approached. Of all these representatives the Lord retained but two, which should include in one complex all things pertaining to the internal church. These two are baptism in the place of washings, and the holy supper in the place of the lamb which was sacrificed each day, and in greater fulness at the feast of the passover.
TCR 671. That the above mentioned washings figured and shadowed forth, that is, represented spiritual washings, which are purifications from evils and falsities, is clearly evident from the following passages:--
When the Lord shall have washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion, and shall have washed away its blood; in the spirit of judgment and in the spirit of cleansing (Isa. 4:4).
Though thou shalt wash thee with lye, and take thee much soap, thine iniquity shall still retain its spots (Jer. 2:22; Job. 9:30, 31).
Wash me from mine iniquity, and I shall be whiter than snow (Ps. 51:2, 3).
Wash thine heart from wickedness, O Jerusalem, that thou mayest be saved (Jer. 4:14).
Wash you, make you clean; put away the evil of your doings from before Mine eyes; cease to do evil (Isa. 1:16).
That the washing of man's spirit was meant by the washing of his body, and that the internals of the church were represented by externals, such as were in the Israelitish church, is very plain from these words of the Lord:--
The Pharisees and Scribes seeing that some of His disciples ate bread with unwashen hands, found fault; for the Pharisees, and all the Jews, except they wash their hands to the fist, eat not; and many other things there be, which they have received to hold, as the washing of cups and pots, brazen vessels, and couches. To them and to the multitude the Lord said: Hear Me all of you, and understand; there is nothing from without a man that entering into him can make him unclean; but the things that come out of him, make him unclean (Mark. 7:1-4, 14, 15; Matt. 15:2, 11, 17-20).
Woe unto you. Scribes and Pharisees! for ye cleanse the outside of the cup and the platter, but within they are full from extortion and excess. Thou blind Pharisee, cleanse first the inside of the cup and platter, that the outside of them may be clean also (Matt. 23:25, 26).
From this it is evident that the washing called baptism means spiritual washing, which is purification from evils and falsities.
TCR 672. What man of sound reason cannot see that the washing of the face, hands and feet, or of all the limbs, and even the whole body in a bath, does nothing more than wash away the dirt, that men may appear clean in the human form before men? And who cannot understand that no washing enters into man's spirit and renders that equally clean? For any thief, plunderer or robber may wash himself until he shines; but is the disposition to steal, plunder and rob thereby washed away? Does not the internal flow into the external and work out the effects of its will and understanding, but not the external into the internal? For this latter is contrary to nature, because it is contrary to order; but the former is according to nature, because it is according to order.
TCR 673. From all this it follows that neither washings nor baptisms, unless man's internal is purified from evils and falsities, has any more efficacy than the washing of cups and platters by the Jews, or (as follows in that same passage) than the whitening of sepulchres, which appear beautiful without, but within are full of dead men's bones and all uncleanness (Matt. 23:25-28); and this is further evident from the fact that the hells are full of satans who were once men, baptized as well as unbaptized. But what baptism does accomplish will appear in what follows. So without its uses and fruits, baptism contributes no more to salvation than the triple miter on the pope's head or the sign of the cross on his shoes contributes to his pontifical supereminence; no more than the purple robe on a cardinal contributes to his dignity, or the pallium of a bishop to the proper discharge of his ministerial duties; no more than the throne, crown, scepter and royal robe of a king to his regal power, or the silken cap on the head of a laureled doctor to his intelligence; or than the standards carried before troops of cavalry to their bravery in war; and it may even be said, that a man is no more purified by baptism than a sheep or a lamb is by being washed before shearing, for the natural man separate from the spiritual is a mere animal, and indeed, as before shown, is more of a wild beast than a wild beast of the forest; so that were you to be washed with the water of rain or dew, or of most excellent fountains, or, as the prophets say, if you were to be cleansed daily with niter, hyssop or soap, you can be purified from your iniquities only by means of regeneration. These means have been treated of in the chapters on Repentance, and on Reformation and Regeneration.
III. BECAUSE CIRCUMCISION OF THE FORESKIN REPRESENTED CIRCUMCISION OF THE HEART, IN THE PLACE OF CIRCUMCISION BAPTISM WAS INSTITUTED, IN ORDER THAT AN INTERNAL CHURCH MIGHT SUCCEED THE EXTERNAL, WHICH IN EACH AND ALL THINGS PREFIGURED THE INTERNAL CHURCH
TCR 674. It is well known in the Christian world that there is an internal and an external man, and that the external is the same as the natural man, and the internal the same as the spiritual man, because man's spirit is in it; also, since the church consists of men that there is an internal church and an external church. And when churches are viewed in the order of their succession from ancient times to the present, it will be seen that the former churches were external, that is, that their worship consisted of externals which represented the internals of the Christian church which was founded by the Lord when He was in the world, and which is now for the first time being built up by Him. That which primarily distinguished the Israelitish church from the other churches in Asia, and afterward from the Christian church, was circumcision. And because, as before said, all things of the Israelitish church, being external, prefigured all things in the Christian church, which are internal, so the especial sign of that church was interiorly like the sign of the Christian church; circumcision signifying the rejection of the lusts of the flesh, and thus purification from evils, and baptism having the same signification; from which it is clear that baptism was commanded in the place of circumcision, in order that the Christian church might not only be distinguished from the Jewish, but also might thus be more clearly recognized as an internal church; which is clearly seen from the uses of baptism, of which presently.
TCR 675. That circumcision was instituted as a sign that the men of the Israelitish church were of the posterity of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, appears from the following:--
God said unto Abraham, This is the covenant with Me, which ye shall keep between Me and you and thy seed after thee. Every child male among you shall be circumcised. And ye shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin that it may be a token of the covenant betwixt Me and you (Gen. 17:9-11).
This covenant, or its token, was afterward confirmed by Moses (Lev. 12:1-3). And as that church was distinguished from others by this sign, so before the sons of Israel had passed over Jordan they were commanded to be circumcised again (Josh. 5); and for the reason that the land of Canaan represented the church, and the river Jordan introduction into it. And furthermore, in order that they might remember that token even in the land of Canaan itself, it was commanded them:--
When ye shall come into the land, and shall have planted all manner of trees for food, then ye shall count the fruits thereof as their uncircumcision; three years shall they be as uncircumcised unto you, and not be eaten (Lev. 19:23).
 That circumcision represented and therefore signified the rejection of the lusts of the flesh, and thus purification from evils, the same as baptism, is evident from the passages in the Word where they are told to circumcise their hearts, as in the following:--
Moses said, Circumcise therefore the foreskin of your heart, and harden not your neck (Deut. 10:16).
And Jehovah thy God will circumcise thine heart, and the heart of thy seed, that thou mayest love Jehovah thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, that thou mayest live (Deut. 30:6).
And in Jeremiah:--
Circumcise yourselves to Jehovah, to take away the foreskins of your heart, ye men of Judah and inhabitants of Jerusalem, lest my anger go forth like fire, because of the evil of your doings (Jeremiah 4:4).
And in Paul:--
For in Jesus Christ neither circumcision availeth anything, nor uncircumcision, but faith working through love and a new creature (Gal. 5:6; 6:15).
 From all this it is now clear that baptism was instituted in place of circumcision, because the circumcision of the flesh represented circumcision of the heart, which also signifies purification from evils, for all kinds of evil arise from the heart, and "the foreskin" signifies its filthy loves. Because circumcision and baptism have a like signification, it is said in Jeremiah:--
Circumcise yourselves to Jehovah, to take away the foreskins of your heart (Jeremiah 4:4);
and a little after:--
Wash thine heart from wickedness, O Jerusalem, that thou mayest be saved (Jeremiah 4:14).
What circumcision is, and the washing of the heart, the Lord teaches in (Matthew 15:18, 19).
TCR 676. There were many among the sons of Israel who believed that they were elected in preference to all others, because of their having been circumcised, and many among the Jews at this day who so believe, and many among Christians have the same belief because of their having been baptized; and yet both circumcision and baptism were given solely as a sign and memorial that the recipients thereof were to be purified from evils, and thus become elect. What is an external in man without an internal but like a temple without worship, which is of no use except perhaps as a stable? And, further, what is an external without an internal but like a field full of reeds and rushes without grain, or like a vineyard consisting merely of vines and leaves without grapes, or like the fig-tree without fruit, which the Lord cursed (Matt. 21:19), or like the lamps without oil in the hands of the foolish virgins (Matt. 25:3)? Or even what is it but like a dwelling-place in a tomb, where there are dead bodies under foot, bones around the walls, and specters of the night flitting beneath the roof, or like a carriage drawn by leopards, with a wolf for a driver and a fool for its occupant? For the external man is not a man, but only the figure of a man; the internal, which is to be wise from God, is what constitutes man. So is it with one circumcised and baptized, unless he circumcises or washes his heart.
IV. THE FIRST USE OF BAPTISM IS INTRODUCTION INTO THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH, AND AT THE SAME TIME INSERTION AMONG CHRISTIANS IN THE SPIRITUAL WORLD
TCR 677. That baptism is introduction into the Christian church is evident from many considerations, such as the following: (i.) Baptism was instituted in the place of circumcision; and as circumcision was a sign that those circumcised were of the Israelitish church, so is baptism a sign that those baptized are of the Christian church, as shown in the preceding section; and a sign is nothing more than a means of recognition, just as swaddling clothes of different colors are put on the children of two mothers, to distinguish them and prevent their being changed.
 (ii.) That it is merely a sign of introduction into the church, is made clear by the baptizing of infants, who are wholly destitute of reason and are no more able to receive anything pertaining to faith than the young branches of a tree.
 (iii.) Not only are infants baptized but all foreign proselytes who are converted to the Christian religion, both the young and the old, and this before they have been instructed, solely because they confess a wish to embrace Christianity, into which they are introduced by baptism, this same having been done by the apostles, according to the Lord's command,
That the disciples should make disciples of all nations, and baptize them (Matt. 28:19).
 (iv.) Again:--
John baptized in Jordan all who came to him from Judea and Jerusalem (Matt. 3:5, 6; Mark 1:5).
He baptized in Jordan for the reason that entrance into the land of Canaan was through that river, and "the land of Canaan" signified the church, because the church was there; and so "the Jordan" signified introduction into the church. That "the land of Canaan" signified the church, and "the Jordan" introduction into it, may be seen in the Apocalypse Revealed (AR n. 285).
 All this, however, is what takes place on earth. But in the heavens infants are introduced by baptism into the Christian heaven, and angels are there assigned them by the Lord, to take care of them. Therefore as soon as infants are baptized, angels are appointed over them, by whom they are kept in a state to receive faith in the Lord; but as they grow up, and begin to exercise self-control and be governed by their own reason, these guardian angels leave them, and they draw into association with themselves such spirits as make one with their life and faith. From all this it is clear that baptism is insertion among Christians in the spiritual world also.
TCR 678. The reason why not only infants but all others, are by baptism inserted among Christians in the spiritual world, is, that it is by their religions that peoples and nations in that world are distinguished from each other. The Christians are in the middle, the Mohammedans are round about them, after them come idolaters of various kinds, and the Jews are at the sides. Moreover, all who are of the same religion are arranged in societies in heaven in accordance with their affections of love to God and love toward the neighbor, and in hell in assemblies in accordance with affections that are the opposites of those two loves, that is, in accordance with the lusts of evil. In the spiritual world, by which both heaven and hell are meant, all things both as a whole and in every part, or in general and in every particular, are most distinctly arranged; upon this distinct arrangement there the preservation of the whole universe depends; and such distinguishing is impossible, unless everyone after he is born can he recognized by some sign showing to what religious body he belongs. For without the Christian sign, which is baptism, some Mohammedan or some idolatrous spirit might attach himself to newly-born Christian children, or even to youths, and breathe into them an inclination towards his religion, and thus distract their minds and alienate them from Christianity, which would be a distortion and destruction of spiritual order.
TCR 679. everyone who traces effects back to their causes may know that the consistence of all things depends on order; and that there are many kinds of order, general and particular; and that there is one order which is the most universal of all, and on which depends the general and particular kinds in connected series; also that this most universal order enters into all the others as the essence itself into its forms, and that thus and not otherwise do they make one. It is this unity that effects the preservation of the whole, which would otherwise fall asunder, and relapse not only into primal chaos, but into nothing. How would it be with man if each thing and all things in his body were not most distinctly arranged and this community of parts made dependent on one heart and one pair of lungs? Otherwise, what would follow but confusion? Could the stomach then perform its functions, the liver and pancreas theirs, the mesentery and mesocolon theirs, the kidneys and intestines theirs? It is because of the order in them and among them, that they each and all appear to man as one. And in the mind or spirit of man if there were no distinct order, and if this community of parts did not depend on the will and understanding, what would there be but a confused and undigested some thing? Without such an order could a man exercise thought and will any more than his picture on a tablet, or his statue in his house? What would man be without a most perfectly arranged influx from heaven and the reception of it? And what would this influx be without a most universal one on which the government of the whole and of all its parts depends, that is to say, unless it depended on God, and unless all things had their being, and lived and moved in Him and from Him? For the natural man this may be illustrated by innumerable things, such as the following: Without order what would an empire or kingdom be but a gang of robbers, a large body of whom would slay thousands, a few at least slaying these many? What is a city without order, or even a household without order? And what is a kingdom, a city, or a household with some one in each acting the part of head?
TCR 680. Furthermore, what is order without distinction, and what is distinction without its evidences, and what are evidences without signs by which qualities are recognized? For without an acquaintance with the qualities order is not recognized as order. In empires and kingdoms the signs or marks of distinction are titles of rank, and the administrative rights attached to them; and from this comes subordination, by means of which all are coordinated as it were into a one. In this way the king exercises his royal power, which is distributed among many according to order, and it is from this that the kingdom becomes a kingdom. It is the same in many other matters, as for example in armies. What power would they have if they were not distinctly organized into regiments, these into battalions, and these again into companies, with subordinate officers each, and over all one commander-in-chief? And what would those arrangements amount to without the signs called standards, which indicate the proper station for each? By such means in battle all act as a one, while without them they would rush upon the enemy merely like a pack of hounds with open mouths, yells, and empty fury; and then, with their courage gone, they would be ingloriously cut in pieces by the enemy formed in well-ordered ranks; for what can those who are divided do against those who are united? Hereby is illustrated this first use of baptism, which is, to serve as a sign in the spiritual world that the one baptized belongs to Christians, for in that world everyone is inserted into societies and congregations according to the quality of the Christianity in him or outside of him.
V. THE SECOND USE OF BAPTISM IS, THAT THE CHRISTIAN MAY KNOW AND ACKNOWLEDGE THE LORD JESUS CHRIST, THE REDEEMER AND SAVIOUR, AND FOLLOW HIM
TCR 681. This second use of baptism, which is to know and acknowledge the Lord, the Redeemer and Saviour Jesus Christ, inseparably follows the first, which is introduction into the Christian church and insertion among Christians in the spiritual world. And what is this first use but a mere name unless the second follows? Is it not really like a subject who attaches himself to a king, and yet repudiates the king's laws or those of the country, and yields allegiance to a foreign king and serves him; or like a servant who binds himself to some master, accepting his livery as a token thereof, and then runs away and serves another master in the livery of the first; or like a standard-bearer who runs away with the standard and cuts it in pieces, throwing the pieces in the air or under the feet of the soldiers to be trodden upon? In a word, to have the name of being a Christian, that is, of belonging to Christ, and yet not acknowledging and following Him, that is, living according to His commandments, is a thing as empty as a shadow, as smoke, or as a blackened picture; for the Lord says:--
Why call ye Me, Lord, and do not the things that I say? (Luke 6:46).
Many will say to Me in that day, Lord, Lord; and then will I profess unto them, I know you not (Matt. 7:22, 23).
TCR 682. "The name of the Lord Jesus Christ" means in the Word nothing else than acknowledgment of Him, and a life according to His commandments. The reason why His name has that signification may be seen in the explanation of the second commandment of the Decalogue:--
Thou shalt not take the name of God in vain (Exod. 20:7).
Nothing else is meant by the name of the Lord in the following passages:--
Jesus said, Ye shall be hated of all nations for My name's sake (Matt. 10:22; 24:9, 10).
Where two or three are gathered together in My name, there am I in the midst of them (Matt. 18:20).
As many as received Him, to them gave He power to become sons of God, even to them that believe on His name (John 1:12).
Many believed in His name (John 2:23).
He that believeth not hath been judged already, because he hath not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God (John 3:17, 18).
Those who believe shall have life in His name (John 20:31).
For My name's sake thou hast labored, and hast not fainted (Apoc. 2:3).
 Who does not see that "the name of the Lord" in these passages does not mean merely His name, but the acknowledgment of Him as being the Redeemer and Saviour, together with obedience, and finally faith in Him? For in baptism the child receives the sign of the cross on the forehead and breast, which is a sign of initiation into the acknowledgment and worship of the Lord. "Name" also means the quality of anyone; because in the spiritual world everyone is named according to his quality; therefore a man's taking the name Christian means his quality,- that he has from Christ faith in Christ and charity toward the neighbor. Such is the meaning of "name" in the Apocalypse:--
The Son of man said, Thou hast a few names even in Sardis who have not defiled their garments and they shall walk with Me in white, for they are worthy (Apoc. 3:4).
"Walking with the Son of man in white" signifies following the Lord and living according to the truths of His Word. "Name" has the same meaning in John:--
Jesus said, The sheep hear His voice, and He calleth His own sheep by name, and leadeth them out; He goeth before them and the sheep follow Him, for they know His voice; and a stranger they do not follow, they know not the voice of strangers (John 10:3-5).
"By name" means by their quality, that they are Christians; and "to follow Him" is to hear His voice, that is, to obey His commandments. All receive this name in baptism, for it is involved in that sign.
TCR 683. What is a name without the reality but an empty thing, or a sound like the echo given back by the trees of a forest or by vaulted buildings, or like the almost lifeless voice of dreamers, the noise of the wind, of the sea, or of some useless machinery? What but emptiness is the name even of a king, a duke, a consul, a bishop, an abbot, or a monk, without the office attached to the name? So what is the name Christian so long as the man lives like a barbarian, and contrary to the precepts of Christ, but like looking to the sign of Satan instead of the sign of Christ, although in baptism Christ's name is interwoven in golden threads? What but rebels and regicides are those who having received the sign of Christ, deride His worship, mock at His name, and acknowledge Him not as the Son of God but of Joseph? And what are their words but blasphemies against the Holy Spirit, which cannot be forgiven either in this world or in the next? These like dogs with open jaws bite at the Word, and tear it to pieces with their teeth. With such, as against Christ and the worship of Christ:--
All tables are full of the vomit of filthiness (Isa. 28:8; Jer. 48:26).
And yet the Lord Jesus Christ is,
The Son of the Most High (Luke 1:32, 35);
The only begotten (John 1:18; 3:16);
The true God and eternal life (1 John 5:20);
In whom dwelleth all the fullness of Divinity bodily (Col. 2:9);
And is not the son of Joseph (Matt. 1:25).
(And thousands of other passages.)
VI. THE THIRD USE OF BAPTISM, WHICH IS THE FINAL USE, IS THAT MAN MAY BE REGENERATED
TCR 684. This is the essential use for the sake of which baptism exists, and thus the final one. This is because the true Christian knows and acknowledges the Lord Jesus Christ the Redeemer, who, as being the Redeemer is also the Regenerator (that redemption and regeneration make one may be seen in section third of the chapter on Reformation and Regeneration); also because a Christian possesses the Word, in which the means of regeneration are plainly described, those means being faith in the Lord and charity toward the neighbor. This is identical with what is said of the Lord, that,
He baptizeth with the Holy Spirit and with fire (Matt. 3:11; Mark 1:8-11; Luke 3:16; John 1:33).
"The Holy Spirit" means the Divine truth of faith, and "fire" the Divine good of love or charity, both proceeding from the Lord. (That "the Holy Spirit" means the Divine truth of faith may be seen in the chapter on the Holy Spirit; and that "fire" means the Divine good of love may be seen in the Apocalypse Revealed, (AR n. 395, 468.) By means of these two, all regeneration is effected by the Lord.
The Lord Himself was baptized by John (Matt. 3:13-17; Mark 1:9; Luke 3:21, 22).
This He did not only that He might institute baptism for the future, Himself setting the example, but also because He glorified His Human and made it Divine, as He regenerates man and renders him spiritual.
TCR 685. From what has been said now and heretofore it can be seen that the three uses of baptism cohere as a unit, like first cause, mediate cause, which is the efficient cause, and last cause, which is the effect and the end itself, for the sake of which the former exist; for the first use is that the man may be called a Christian; the second, following from this, is that he may know and acknowledge the Lord the Redeemer, Regenerator and Saviour; and the third that he may be regenerated by Him; and when this is done man is redeemed and saved. As these three uses follow in order, and are conjoined in the last, and consequently in the conception of the angels cohere as a unit, so when baptism is performed, read of in the Word, or mentioned, the angels who are present do not understand baptism, but regeneration. Therefore, by these words of the Lord:--
He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved, but he that believeth not shall be condemned (Mark 16:16),
the angels in heaven understand that he who acknowledges the Lord and is regenerated will be saved. And for this reason baptism is called by the Christian churches on earth the laver of regeneration. Let every Christian know, then, that he who does not believe in the Lord even though he has been baptized, cannot be regenerated. Also that baptism without faith in the Lord has no effect whatever, may be seen above, in the second section of this chapter (n. 673). Every Christian is well aware that baptism involves purification from evils, and thus regeneration, for when he is baptized in infancy, the priest with his finger makes the sign of the cross, as a memorial of the Lord, on his forehead and breast, and afterwards turns to his sponsors and asks whether he renounces the devil and all his works, and accepts the faith; to which the sponsors, in the place of the infant, answer, "Yes." The renunciation of the devil, that is, of the evils that are from hell, and faith in the Lord, are what effect regeneration.
TCR 686. It is said in the Word that the Lord God our Redeemer baptizes with the Holy Spirit and with fire, which means that the Lord regenerates man by the Divine truth of faith and the Divine good of love or charity (as may be seen above in the first number of this section). Those who have been regenerated by the Holy Spirit, that is, by the Divine truth of faith, are distinct in the heavens from those who are regenerated by fire, that is, by the Divine good of love. Those who have been regenerated by the Divine truth of faith walk in heaven in raiment of white linen, and are called spiritual angels; but those who have been regenerated by the Divine good of love walk in purple raiment, and are called celestial angels. Those who go clothed in white raiment are meant by the following:--
They follow the Lamb clothed in fine linen, white and clean (Apoc. 19:14).
They shall walk with Me in white (Apoc. 3:4; 7:14).
The angels seen at the Lord's sepulchre clothed in white and shining garments (Matt 28:3; Luke 24:4).
They were of this class, because "fine linen" signifies the righteousness of the saints (Apoc. 19:8), where this is directly stated. That "garments" in the Word signify truths, and "garments of white" and "fine linen" signify Divine truths, may be seen in the Apocalypse Revealed, where this is shown (AR n. 379). Those who have been regenerated by the Divine good of love are clothed in purple garments, because purple is the color of love, which color it derives from the fire of the sun and its redness. That this signifies love may be seen in the Apocalypse Revealed (AR n. 468, 725.) It was because "garments" signify truths, that he who was found among those called to the wedding not clothed with a wedding garment, was turned out and cast into outer darkness (Matt. 22:11-13).
TCR 687. Furthermore, baptism as regeneration is represented by many things both in heaven and in the world; in heaven, as just said, by white and purple garments, also by the marriage of the church with the Lord, also by the new heaven and the new earth, and the New Jerusalem descending therefrom, of which He who sat upon the throne, said:--
Behold, I make all things new (Apoc. 21:1-5);
And by the river of living water proceeding out of the throne of God and the Lamb (Apoc. 22:1, 2);
Also by the five prudent virgins who had lamps and oil, and went in with the bridegroom to the marriage feast (Matt. 25:1, 2, 10).
One who is baptized, that is regenerated, is meant by,
Creature (Mark 16:15; Rom. 8:19-21);
A new creature (2 Cor. 5:17; Gal. 6:15);
for he is called "a creature" from his being created; and this also signifies to be regenerated, as may be seen in the Apocalypse Revealed (AR n. 254).
 In the world regeneration is represented by various things, as by the blossoming of all things on earth in spring, and by the gradual development of the blossoms even to the fruit; also by the growth of every tree, shrub and flower, from the first warm month to the last. It is also represented by the progressive ripening of all kinds of fruit from the earliest germ to the end of the process; then again by morning and evening showers, and by dews, at the coming of which the flowers open, while they close at the approach of the darkness of night; also by the fragrance from gardens and fields; by the rainbow in the cloud (Gen. 9:14-17); by the resplendent colors of the dawn; and in general by the continual renovation of everything in the body by means of the chyle and the animal spirit, and consequently by the blood. The purification of this from exhausted material, and its renovation, and seeming regeneration, are perpetual.
 If we turn our thoughts to the more insignificant things on earth, an image of regeneration is presented in the wonders transformation of the silk-worm and other worms into nymphs and butterflies, and of still other kinds which after a time are provided with wings; to which may be added still more trifling matters, as the desire of certain birds to plunge themselves into water for the sake of washing and cleansing themselves, after which they return as warblers to their songs. In a word, the whole world from what is first to what is last in it is full of representations and types of regeneration.
VII. BY THE BAPTISM OF JOHN A WAY WAS PREPARED, THAT JEHOVAH THE LORD MIGHT DESCEND INTO THE WORLD AND ACCOMPLISH REDEMPTION
TCR 688. It is written in Malachi:--
Behold, I send My messenger, and he shall prepare the way before Me; and the Lord whom ye seek shall suddenly come to His temple, even the messenger of the covenant, whom ye long for. Who will abide the day of His coming, and who will stand when He shall appear? (Malachi 3:1, 2).
Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet, before the great and terrible day of Jehovah comes; lest I come and smite the earth with a curse (Malachi 4:5, 6).
And Zacharias the father, prophesying of his son John, says:--
Thou, child, shalt be called the prophet of the Most High; for thou shalt go before the face of the Lord to make ready His ways (Luke 1:76).
And the Lord Himself says of this same John:--
This is he of whom it is written, Behold, I send My angel before Thy face, who shall prepare Thy way before Thee (Luke 7:27).
From all this it is clear that this John was the prophet sent to make ready the way of Jehovah God, who should descend into the world and accomplish redemption; and that he made ready that way by baptism, and by announcing the coming of the Lord; and that without such preparation all on earth would have been smitten with a curse and would have perished.
TCR 689. The way was prepared by the baptism of John, because by means of that baptism, as shown above, men were introduced into the future church of the Lord, and in heaven were inserted among those who were there looking for and longing for the Messiah; and they were thus guarded by angels, that devils from hell might not break forth and destroy them. Wherefore it is written in Malachi:--
Who shall abide the day of His coming? and lest Jehovah come and smite the earth with a curse (Malachi 3:2; 4:6).
So also in Isaiah:--
Behold, the day of Jehovah cometh, cruel and of indignation, and of wrath of anger; I will move heaven and the land shall be shaken out of its place, in the day of the wrath of His anger (Isaiah 13:6, 9, 13, 22; 22:5, 12).
Again, in Jeremiah:--
That day is called a day of wasting, of vengeance, and of destruction (Jeremiah 4:9; 7:32; 46:10, 21; 47:4; 49:8, 26).
A day of wrath, of cloud and of thick darkness (Ezekiel 13:5; 30:2, 3, 9; 34:11, 12; 38:14, 16, 18, 19).
Also in (Amos 5:13, 18, 20; 8:3, 9, 13). And in Joel:--
The day of Jehovah is great and very terrible, and who can abide it? (Joel 2:1, 2, 11; 3:2, 4).
And in Zephaniah:--
In that day there shall be the noise of a cry, that the great day of Jehovah is near, that that is a day of wrath, a day of trouble and distress, a day of wasteness and desolation, that in the day of Jehovah's wrath the whole land shall be devoured, and that He will make a consummation with all them that dwell in the land (Zephaniah 1:7-18).
(Besides other passages.) From all this it is clear that unless a way had been made ready for Jehovah when He was descending into the world, by means of baptism, the effect of which in heaven was to close up the hells and guard the Jews against total destruction (they would all have perished). Jehovah also says to Moses:--
In one moment if I come up into the midst of thee I will consume the people (Ex. 33:5).
That it is so is very clear from the words of John to the multitudes going out to him to be baptized:--
Ye offspring of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come? (Matt. 3:7; Luke 3:7).
That John when he was baptizing taught Christ and His coming is evident from (Luke 3:16; John 1:25, 26, 31-33; 3:26). All this makes clear how John prepared the way.
TCR 690. As to the baptism of John; it represented this cleansing of the external man; while the baptism of Christians at the present day represents the cleansing of the internal man, which is regeneration. It is therefore written that John baptized with water, but that the Lord baptized with the Holy Spirit and with fire, and therefore John's baptism is called the baptism of repentance (Matt. 3:11; Mark 1:4, 5; Luke 3:3, 16; John 1:25, 26, 33; Acts 1:22; 10:37; 18:25). The Jews who were baptized were merely external men, and without faith in Christ the external man cannot become internal. That those who were baptized with the baptism of John, became internal men when they received the faith in Christ, and were then baptized in the name of Jesus, may be seen in (Acts 19:3-6).
TCR 691. Moses said to Jehovah:--
Show me Thy glory. Jehovah said to him, Thou canst not see my faces, for man shall not see Me and live. And Jehovah said, Behold, there is a place where thou shalt stand upon a rock, and I will put thee in a hole of the rock, and will cover thee with My hand until I shall have passed by; and when I shall take away My hand thou shalt see My hinder parts; but My faces shall not be seen (Ex. 33:18-23).
Man cannot see God and live for the reason that God is love itself, and love itself or Divine love in the spiritual world appears before the angels as a sun, distant from them as the sun of our world is from men. Therefore, if God, who is in the midst of that sun, were to draw near to the angels, they would perish, as men would if the sun of the world were to draw near to them; for the spiritual sun is equally hot.
 For this reason there are perpetual temperings, which modify and moderate the heat of this love, so that it may not inflow into heaven as it is in itself; for the angels would be thereby consumed. Therefore when the Lord renders Himself more immediately present in heaven, the wicked who are beneath heaven begin to lament, to be tortured, and to lose life, so that they flee into caves and clefts of mountains, crying out:--
Fall on us, and hide us from the face of Him that sitteth on the throne (Apoc. 6:16; Isa. 2:19, 21).
It is not the Lord Himself who descends, but an angel with a sphere of love from the Lord encompassing him. I have several times seen the wicked terrified by that descent, as if they saw death itself before their eyes, some casting themselves deeper and deeper into hell, and some driven to fury.
 This explains why the children of Israel prepared themselves for three days before the descent of Jehovah the Lord upon Mount Sinai, and the Mount was fenced about, lest anyone should come near it and die (Ex. 19). The same is true of the holiness of Jehovah the Lord in the Decalogue then promulgated, and written by the finger of God on two tables, and afterward deposited in the ark, over which in the tabernacle the mercy-seat was placed, and over this again the cherubs, lest anyone should touch that holiness immediately with hand or eye. Not even Aaron could go near to it, except once a year, and after he had made expiation for himself by sacrifices and incense offerings.
 For the same reason the people of Ekron and Bethshemesh died to the number of several thousands merely because they looked into the ark (1 Sam. 5:11, 12; 6:19), as did Uzzah also, because he touched it (2 Sam. 6:6, 7). These few instances illustrate with what a curse and destruction the Jews would have been smitten if they had not been prepared by the baptism of John for receiving the Messiah, who was Jehovah God in the human form, and if He had not assumed the Human and thus revealed Himself; also that there was this further preparation that in heaven they were enrolled and numbered with those who in heart were waiting for and longing for the Messiah, for which reason angels were then sent and made guardians over them.
TCR 692. To this I will add the following Memorable Relations. First:-
When returning home from a school of wisdom (n. 48), I saw on the way an angel in violet-colored clothing. He came up beside me and said, "I see that you have come from a school of wisdom and are delighted with what you have there heard. And as I perceive that you are not fully in this world, being at the same time in the natural world, and therefore know nothing about our Olympic gymnasia where the old Sophi meet, and where they learn from the new-comers from your world what changes and successions of state wisdom has undergone and is still undergoing, if you wish, I will conduct you to a place where many of the ancient Sophi and their sons, that is, their disciples, dwell."
And he conducted me to the border between the north and east; and when I looked forward into it from an eminence, behold, a city appeared, and at one side of it two hills, the one nearer to the city being the lower. And the angel said to me, "That city is called Athenaeum, the lower hill Parnassium, and the higher Heliconeum. They are so named because in and about the city the old Grecian sages dwell, such as Pythagoras, Socrates, Aristippus, and Xenophon, with their disciples and scholars."
I asked about Plato and Aristotle, and he said that they with their followers inhabit another region, because they taught rational things, which pertain to the understanding, while the others taught morals, which pertain to life.
 He said that studious persons were frequently sent from the city Athenaeum to the Christian literati, to learn from them what they think at this day about God, the creation of the universe, the immortality of the soul, the state of man relative to that of beasts, and other subjects of interior wisdom. He said also, that a herald had this day proclaimed a meeting, an indication that their messengers had met with new-comers from the earth, from whom they had heard some curious things.
And we saw a number of persons going from the city and suburbs, some having laurels on their heads, some holding palms in their hands, some with books under their arms, and some with quills under the hair of the left temple.
 We mingled with them and ascended the hill in their company; and behold, on the hill was an octagonal palace, which they called the Palladium; and we entered. And behold, there were eight sexagonal recesses there, in each one of which was a library, and also a table at which those crowned with laurel sat; and in the Palladium itself seats cut in stone were seen, upon which the others seated themselves.
A door was then opened at the left, through which were ushered two new-comers from the earth; and after salutations, one of those crowned with laurel asked them, "What news from earth?"
They said, "The news is that men like beasts, or beasts like men, have been found in a forest, whose faces and bodies showed that they had been born men, and had been left or lost in the forest when two or three years old; and it was claimed that they were unable to give expression by sound to anything of thought, or to learn to articulate any word; nor did they, like beasts, know the food that was suitable for them, but put into their mouths the productions of the forest, whether clean or unclean; and many such things were said of them. From all this some learned men among us have formed suppositions and others conclusions in regard to the state of men as related to that of beasts."
 Hearing this, some of the ancient Sophi asked, "What suppositions and conclusions do they draw from these facts?"
The two new-comers answered, "Many; but they may be referred to the following:
1. That man by his nature, and also by birth, is more stupid and therefore lower than any beast; and that he becomes such if not instructed.
2. That he could be instructed, because he had learned to make articulate sounds, and consequently to speak; and that he thereby began to express thoughts, and this gradually more and more fully, so that he is now able to frame laws of society, some of which however, are impressed upon beasts from birth.
3. That rationality belongs as much to beasts as to men.
4. Therefore, if beasts were able to speak, they would reason as skilfully as men on any subject, a proof of which is, that they think from reason and prudence equally with men.
5. That the understanding is a mere modification of light from the sun, heat co-operating and the ether being the medium; thus it is a mere activity of interior nature; and this can be exalted to such a degree as to appear like wisdom.
6. That it is therefore vain to believe that man lives after death any more than a beast, except, perhaps, that for some days after death, owing to the exhalation of life from the body, he may appear like mist in the form of a ghost, before he is dissipated into nature; almost as a shrub raised from its ashes appears in a resemblance of its own form.
7. Consequently religion, which teaches that there is a life after death, is an invention to hold simple people in bondage by its laws internally, as they are held externally by civil laws."
To this they added that those who are merely ingenious so reasoned, but not the intelligent. The Sophi asked, "What do the intelligent think?"
They said, "We have not heard; but that is our opinion."
 Hearing this, all those who were seated at the tables exclaimed, "Oh what times they have now on earth! Alas! what changes wisdom has undergone! It is turned into an infatuated ingenuity. The sun has gone down, and is beneath the earth directly opposite to its noonday height. Who might not know from the evidence furnished by those persons lost in the forest and found again, that such is man when not instructed? Is he not what instruction makes him? Is he not born more ignorant than the beasts? Must he not learn to walk and talk? If he were not taught to Walk, would he raise himself erect upon his feet? And without learning to talk could he even murmur anything of thought? Is not every man what instruction makes him, unwise from falsities or wise from truths; and is not the one who is unwise from falsities under a complete hallucination that he is wiser than the one who is wise? Are there not infatuated and senseless men, who are no more men than those found in the woods? Are not those who are devoid of memory like them?
 From all these instances we conclude that a man without instruction is not a man, neither is he a beast, but a form capable of receiving into itself that which makes it a man; thus man is not born a man, but is made a man, furthermore, that man is born such a form as to be an organ receptive of life from God, to the end that he may be a subject into whom God may bring every good, and make him blessed forever by union with Him self. We perceive from your remarks that wisdom is at this day so far extinguished or infatuated, that men know nothing whatever of the state of their own life relative to that of beasts; and for that reason they are ignorant of the state of man's life after death; and those who are able to know about this, but do not wish to, and consequently deny it, as many of your Christians do, we may liken to those found in the forest; not that they have become thus stupid from lack of instruction, but they have made themselves thus stupid by the fallacies of the senses, which are the obscuration of truths."
 But just then some one standing in the center of the Palladium holding a palm in his hand, said, "Explain, I pray you, this mystery; how man, having been created a form of God, could be changed into the form of the devil. I know that the angels of heaven are forms of God, and the spirits of hell forms of the devil; and the two forms are opposites, the latter being forms of insanity, the former of wisdom. Tell me, therefore, how a man created a form of God, could pass from day into such a night as to be able to deny God and eternal life."
To this the teachers answered in order: First the Pythagoreans, then the disciples of Socrates, and then the others.
But there was among them a Platonist, who spoke last, and his opinion prevailed. It was as follows: "The men of the Saturnian or golden age knew and acknowledged that they were forms receptive of life from God, and consequently wisdom was inscribed on their souls and hearts, and thus they saw truth from the light of truth, and through truths had a perception of good from the delight pertaining to the love of good. But as the human race departed in succeeding ages from the acknowledgment that all truth of wisdom, and consequently all good of love in them, flows in continually from God, they ceased to be dwelling places of God; and converse with God and affiliation with angels also ceased. For the interiors of their minds, which had been raised upward by God to God, were then turned from their proper direction to one more and more oblique, outwardly into the world, and thus through the world to God from God; and finally they were turned in the opposite direction, which is downward to self. And as a man who is thus interiorly inverted and turned away cannot look to God, men have separated themselves from God, and have become forms of hell, and thus of the devil. From this it follows, that in the first ages men acknowledged in heart and soul that all good of love, and all truth of wisdom therefrom came to them from God, and also were God's in them; thus that they were mere receptacles of life from God, and were therefore called images of God, sons of God, and born of God; but in succeeding ages they acknowledged this not with the heart and soul, but with a kind of persuasive faith, then with a historic faith, and finally with the lips only; and acknowledging such a truth with the lips only is not acknowledging it, but in heart is denying it.
 All this shows the kind of wisdom that now prevails on earth among Christians (although they might be inspired by a written revelation from God) for they do not even know the distinction between men and beasts, and in consequence many believe that if man lives after death, beasts must live after death also; or that as beasts do not live after death, therefore man does not. Has not our spiritual light, which illuminates the mental vision, become thick darkness among them, and their natural light, which illuminates the bodily vision only, become splendor?"
 After this the assembly all turned toward the two visitors and thanked them for their visit and the account they had given; they also begged of them to report what they had heard to their brethren.
The visitors answered that they would confirm their brethren in this truth, that so far as they attribute all the good of charity and truth of faith to the Lord, and not to themselves, so far they are men, and become angels of heaven.
TCR 693. Second Memorable Relation:-
Some weeks after this I heard a voice from heaven saying, "There is again a meeting on Parnassium; come, we will show you the way."
I went; and when I came near, I saw one standing on Heliconeum with a trumpet, with which he proclaimed and appointed the meeting. And I saw persons going up as before from the city Athenaeum and its borders, and in their midst three new-comers from the world. These were from among Christians; one a priest, the second a politician, and the third a philosopher. The others entertained them on the way with varied conversation, especially about some ancient wise men whom they named. The new-comers asked if they should see these, and were told that they would, and might be introduced to them if they wished, as they were affable.
They asked about Demosthenes, Diogenes, and Epicurus, and were told, "Demosthenes is not here, but is with Plato; Diogenes with his scholars dwells at the foot of Heliconeum; because he regards worldly things as of no account, and studies heavenly things only; Epicurus dwells on the border toward the west, and does not come among us, because we distinguish between good affections and evil affections, and insist that good affections are one with wisdom, and that evil affections are contrary to wisdom."
 When they had ascended the hill Parnassium, some guards there were bringing water from a fountain at the place in crystal cups, and saying, "This is water from the fountain which the ancients in their fables say was broken through by the hoof of the horse Pegasus, and afterward consecrated to the nine Muses." By the winged horse Pegasus they meant the understanding of truth, through which comes wisdom; by his hoofs they meant the experiences through which comes natural intelligence; and by the nine Muses all kinds of knowledges and facts. These things are now called fables, but they were correspondences, from which the earliest peoples spoke.
To the three new-comers their companions said, "Do not be surprised; the guards have been taught to speak in this manner; and drinking water from this fountain means to us being taught about truths, and by means of truths about goods, and thus becoming wise."
 They then entered the Palladium, and with them the three new-comers from the world-the priest, the politician, and the philosopher. Then those crowned with laurel who were seated at the tables asked, "What news from earth?"
And they answered, "This is news, that a certain man claims to talk with angels, and to have his sight opened into the spiritual world as fully as into the natural world; and from the spiritual world he reports many new things, among which are the following: That man lives a man after death, as he before lived in the world; that he sees, hears, and talks as he did before in the world; that he is clothed and decorated as formerly in the world; that he hungers and thirsts, eats and drinks, enjoys the delights of marriage, and sleeps and wakes, all as he did before in the world; that there are lands and lakes, mountains and hills, plains and valleys, springs and rivers, gardens and groves there; also palaces and houses, cities and villages, as in the natural world; and again that there are writings and books, different kinds of occupation and business, also precious stones, gold and silver, in a word, that each and everything that exists on the earth is there, although those in the heavens are infinitely more perfect, with this difference only, that all things in the spiritual world have a spiritual origin, and are therefore spiritual; since they are from the sun there which is pure love; while all things in the natural world have a natural origin, and are therefore natural and material, since they are from the sun there which is pure fire; in other words, man after death is perfectly a man, even more perfectly a man than before in the world; for he was then in a material body, while in this world he is in a spiritual body."
 When this had been said, the ancient wise men asked what men on earth thought of these things.
The three replied; "We ourselves know that they are true, because we are here, and have investigated and examined everything; but how men talk and reason about them on earth we will now tell."
Then the priest said, "Those of our order, when they first hard these things, called them visions, and then fictions; afterwards they said that the man saw specters, and finally they hesitated and said, `Believe him if ye will; we have always taught that man will not exist after death in a body, until the day of the last judgment."
It was then asked, "Are there not some intelligent persons among them, who are able to declare to them and convince them of the truth that man lives a man after death?"
 The priest answered, "There are some who declare it, but they fail to convince. Those who declare it say that it is contrary to sound reason to believe that a man does not live a man until the day of the last judgment, and that meanwhile he is a soul without a body. What is the soul, and where, is it meanwhile? Is it a breath, or something like wind, floating in the air, or an entity hidden in the center of the earth? Where is its abode? Are the souls of Adam and Eve and all who have lived since during six thousand years or sixty centuries, still flying about the universe, or are they kept shut up in the center of the earth awaiting the last judgment? What could be more painful and wretched than such a waiting? Might not their lot be compared to that of men bound in chains and fetters in prisons? If such were the lot of man after death, would it not be better to be born an ass than a man? Moreover, is it not contrary to reason to believe that the soul can be reclothed with its body? Is not the body eaten up by worms, mice, and fishes? Can such a new body be put on a skeleton that has been burnt up by the sun, or reduced to dust? How can those cadaverous and putrid things be collected and united again to their souls? But when they listen to such arguments they make no rational reply, but adhere to their faith, saying, `We make reason obedient to faith.' As to the gathering of all from the graves at the day of the last judgment, they say, `That is the word of omnipotence.' And when they mention omnipotence and faith, reason is exiled, and I may say that sound reason is annihilated, as it were, or with some is like a specter; and they can even say to sound reason, `Thou art mad.'"
 Having heard this, the wise men of Greece said, "Are not such paradoxes dissipated of themselves as contradictions? And yet today in the world not even sound reason can dissipate them. Can anything more paradoxical be believed than what is asserted of the last judgment, that the universe will then perish, and the stars of heaven fall to the earth, which is smaller than the stars; and that the bodies of men, either corpses or mummies, eaten by others or become dust; will be re-united with their souls? When we were in the world we believed in the immortality of the souls of men from the inductions furnished us by reason; we also designated places for the blessed, which we called the Elysian Fields; and we believed them to be human in form or kind but subtle, because spiritual."
 When all this had been said, they turned to the second newcomer, who in the world had been a politician. He confessed that he had not believed in a life after death, and that he had regarded the new reports he had heard about it as fictions and inventions. "Meditating upon that life" he said, "I asked how souls could be bodies. Does not the whole of a man lie dead in the grave? Is not the eye there? How then can he see? Is the ear not there? How can he hear? Where is the mouth for him to talk with? If any sort of man were to live after death must it not be something like a specter? And how can a specter eat and drink and enjoy the delights of marriage? Where do its clothing, house, food, and other things come from? Moreover, specters, which are airy images, seem to be, and yet are not. These and like thoughts I had in the world about the life of men after death. But now, when I have seen everything and touched everything with my hands, I am convinced by the very senses that I am a man as in the world, even so that I am not aware that I live otherwise than as I formerly lived, with the difference that my reason is now more sound. I have often been ashamed of my former thoughts."
 The philosopher spoke in a like manner of himself, with this difference, however, that the new things he had heard respecting a life after death, he classed among the opinions and hypotheses which he had collected from both ancients and moderns.
The Sophi were astounded when they heard these things; and those belonging to the Socratic school said that they perceived by this news from earth that the interiors of men's minds were gradually closing up, and that belief in falsity is now shining in the world like truth, and infatuated ingenuity like wisdom, and that the light of wisdom had lowered itself since their times from the interiors of the brain to the mouth beneath the nose, where it appeared to the eye like a brightness of the lips, and consequently the mouth's utterances appear like wisdom.
One of the tyros after hearing this said, "How stupid are the minds of those who now dwell on earth! Would that the disciples of Heraclitus who laugh at all things, and of Democritus who weep at all things, were here, and we should hear both great laughter and great weeping."
After the business of the meeting was finished, they gave to the three new-comers from the earth badges of their authority which were plates of copper on which some hieroglyphics were written. With these they departed.
TCR 694. Third Memorable Relation:-
Sometime afterward I looked toward the city Athenaeum, spoken of in the foregoing Memorable Relation, and I heard a strange noise coming from it. There was in it something of laughter, in this something of indignation, and in this still something of sadness; and yet the noise was not discordant but harmonious, because the sounds were not simultaneous, but were one within the other. In the spiritual world the variety and commingling of affections is distinctly perceived in the tone of the voice.
At a distance I asked, "What is the matter?" They answered, "A messenger has arrived from the place where new-comers from the Christian world first appear, saying that he has heard from three persons there that in the world from which they had come, they in common with others there had believed that after death the blessed and happy would have rest from all kinds of labor; and because administrations, and official and manual employments are labors, there would be rest from these. And as these three have now been brought here by our messenger, and stand waiting at the door, a clamor has arisen; and after consultation it has been decided that they should not be introduced into the Palladium on Parnassium as the former new-comers had been, but into the great auditorium there, that they may tell their news from the Christian world; and some have been sent to introduce them formally."
As I was in the spirit, and as with spirits distances Are according to the state of their affections, and as I then had an affection for seeing and hearing the new-comers, I seemed to myself to be there present, and I saw them introduced and heard them speak.
 In the auditorium the older or wiser sat at the sides, and the others in the center, and in front of these was a raised floor. The three new-corners with the messenger were conducted hither, through the middle of the auditorium, by the younger ones in formal attendance; and when silence had been obtained they were introduced by one of the elders, and asked, "What news from earth?"
They replied, "There is much news; but pray tell us to what subject your inquiry refers."
The elder replied, "What news from earth respecting our world and heaven?"
They answered, "when we first arrived in this world, we heard that both here and in heaven there are governments, ministerial offices, occupations, business, all kinds of studies, and wonderful works; although our belief had been that after our removal or transfer from the natural world into this spiritual world, we should enter into eternal rest from labors. But what are occupations but labors?"
 To this the elder replied, "By eternal rest from labor did you understand eternal idleness, wherein you would constantly sit and lie, inhaling delights with the breast, and drinking in joys with the mouth?"
The three new-comers smiled pleasantly at this and said, "We did entertain some such opinion."
They were then asked, "What has joy, delight, and consequent happiness in common with idleness? By idleness the mind is not expanded but dissipated; that is, man is deadened by it, not vivified. Picture to yourselves a man sitting in utter idleness, his hands hanging down, his eyes cast down or withdrawn, and at the same time surrounded by an aura of delight; would not a lethargy seize upon both his head and body, the vital expansion of his face give way, and with relaxed fibers would he not nod and nod, until he fell to the ground? What keeps the whole bodily system expanded and tense, but the tension of the mind? And whence comes the mind's tension but from administrative duties and works, when they are performed from delight? I will therefore tell you this news from heaven, that there are governments here, ministerial duties, judicial tribunals, greater and less, as also mechanical and other employments."
 When the three new-comers heard that there were greater and lesser judicial tribunals in heaven they said, "Why so? Are not all who are in heaven inspired and led by God, and do they not therefore know what is just and right? What need then of judges?"
The elder replied, "In this world we are taught and learn what is good and true, also what is just and equitable, the same as in the natural world, and these things we learn not immediately from God, but mediately through others; and every angel, like every man, thinks what is true and does what is good as if of himself, this being not pure but mixed, according to the state of the angel. Moreover, among angels some are simple and some wise, and the wise must judge of what is just, while the simple from their simplicity and ignorance are in doubt about it of depart from it.
 But as you are yet new in this world, follow me, if you would like to do so, into our city, and we will show you everything."
And they left the auditorium, others of the elders also accompanying them; and first entered a large library, which was divided into smaller libraries, each devoted to a different branch of knowledge. The three new-comers, seeing so many books, were amazed, and said, "Are there books in this world also?" Where do the parchment, paper, pens and ink come from?"
The elders replied, "We perceive that in the former world you believed this world to be empty because it is spiritual; and this you believed because you cherished an idea of the spiritual as something abstract from the material; and what is abstract from the material seemed to you like nothing, thus like a vacuum; and yet here is an abundance of all things. All things here are substantial, not material, and material things have their origin in the substantial. We who are here are spiritual men, because we are substantial and not material. For this reason all things that exist in the natural world exist here in their perfection, even books and writings and many other things."
When the three new-comers heard the word substantial, they recognized the truth of the matter, both from seeing the written books and from hearing that matter originates in substance. To convince them still further, they were taken to the abodes of the writers who transcribed the writings of the wise men of the city; and they examined the writings and wondered at their neatness and elegance.
 After this they were conducted to the museums, gymnasia, colleges, and places where they held their literary games, some called the games of the Heliconides, some of the Parnassides, some of the Athenaeides, and some of the Virgins of the fountain. They said that the latter were so named because virgins signify affections for knowledges, according to which affections everyone has intelligence. The so-called games were spiritual exercises and trials of skill. After this they were conducted about the city to the rulers, administrators, and their officers, and by these latter to the wonderful works which their workmen execute in a spiritual manner.
 When these things had been seen, the elder again spoke to them about the eternal rest from labor, into which the blessed and happy enter after death. He said, "Eternal rest is not idleness, for idleness produces a languid, torpid, stupid, and sleepy state of the mind, and therefrom of the whole body; and this is not life but death, still less is it the eternal life which the angels of heaven live. Eternal rest is therefore a rest that dispels that state and causes man to live; thus it is nothing else than what elevates the mind; and is some pursuit or work by which the mind is aroused, enlivened, and delighted; and this is accomplished in the measure of the use from which, and for which the mind labors. Because of this the whole heaven is regarded by the Lord as a containant of uses, and every angel is an angel in the measure of his use. Delight in use bears him on as a favoring current does a ship, causing him to be in eternal peace and in the rest of peace. This is what is meant by eternal rest from labor. That an angel is alive in the measure of the application of his mind to use is very manifest from this, that everyone has conjugial love with its vigor, potency, and delights, according to his application to the genuine use in which he is engaged."
When the three new-comers had been convinced that eternal rest is not idleness, but the delight arising from some useful work, some virgins came and presented them with needlework and embroidery made with their own hands; and as the new-comers were departing, the virgins sang an ode in which they expressed in angelic melody the affection for useful labor and its charms.
TCR 695. Fourth Memorable Relation:-
At the present day most of those who believe in a life after death, also believe that in heaven their thoughts will be nothing but devotions, and their words nothing but prayers; and that all these, together with the expressions of the face and the actions of the body, will be nothing but glorification of God, thus their houses will be houses of worship or sacred chapels, and they themselves will all be priests of God. But I can affirm that the holy things of the church do not occupy the minds or homes of men there any more than in the world where God is worshiped, although worship there is purer and more interior; while the various matters pertaining to civil prudence and to rational learning are to be found there in their excellence.
 One day I was taken up to heaven, and was conducted to a certain society there, where the Sophi were who in ancient times excelled in learning because of their deep reflection and meditation upon such subjects as were both rational and useful, and who were now in heaven, because they had believed in God and now believed in the Lord, and loved their neighbor as themselves. Afterwards I was introduced into an assembly of these, and was there asked where I came from; and I explained to them that in body I was in the natural world, but in spirit in their world.
Hearing this, those angels were delighted, and asked, "In the world where you are in body what do they know and understand about influx?"
When I had recalled to mind what I had gathered on that subject from the discourses and writings of celebrated men, I replied, that as yet they knew nothing about any influx from the spiritual world into the natural, but only of the influx of nature into her subjects, as of the sun's heat and light into living bodies, and also into trees and shrubs, which are all thereby made to live; and, on the other hand, of the influx of cold into the same objects, whereby they are deprived of life; and furthermore, of influx of light into the eye, from which comes sight, of sound into the ear, from which comes hearing, of odor into the nostrils, from which comes smell; and so on.
 As to anything beyond this, the learned of this age reason diversely about the influx of the soul into the body and of the body into the soul, and about this they are divided into three parties, one holding that there is an influx of the soul into the body, which they call occasional influx, because of its occurring whenever anything strikes the bodily senses; another, that there is an influx of the body into the soul, which they call physical influx, because the objects fall upon the bodily senses, and therefrom upon the soul; the third, that there is a simultaneous and instantaneous influx into the body and soul together, which they call pre-established harmony. Nevertheless, each one thinks that the kind of influx he advocates takes place within nature. Some believe the soul to be a particle or drop of ether, some that it is a little ball or spark of light, and others that it is some entity that hides itself in the brain. But this or that which they think the soul to be, while they indeed call it spiritual, yet by spiritual they mean nothing more than a purer natural; for they know nothing about the spiritual world, or its influx into the natural; and therefore they remain within the sphere of nature. In this sphere they go up and down, and lift themselves up into it like eagles in the air; and those who thus abide in nature are like the inhabitants of some island in the sea who are unaware that there is any land beyond their own, or are like fishes in a stream which do not know that there is air above their waters. When therefore they hear any mention made of a world distinct from their own, where angels and spirits dwell, and are told that all influx into men is from that world, as well as one interior influx into trees, they stand amazed as if they were listening to some visionary reports of ghosts, or to the nonsense of astrologers.
 In the world where I am when in the body, with the exception of the philosophers, our people do not think about or mention any influx but that of wine into cups, of food and drink into the stomach, of taste into the tongue, and also, perhaps, of the influx of the air into the lungs, and so on; and if they hear anything said about an influx of the spiritual world into the natural, they say, "Let it flow in if it will; what advantage or use is there in knowing it?" And they go away; and if they afterwards speak about what they have heard respecting that influx, they play with it as some play with pebbles between their fingers.
 Afterwards I talked with these angels about the wonderful effects that spring from the influx of the spiritual world into the natural, such as the turning of grubs into butterflies, and the wonders relating to bees and drones, and silk-worms, and also spiders; and I said that the inhabitants of the earth attribute these things to the light and heat of the sun; thus to nature; and, what I have often wondered at, they confirm themselves by means of these in favor of nature, and by these confirmations bring sleep and death upon their minds, and become atheists.
I then related some wonderful things about plants, as that they all progress in proper order from seed to new seed again, just as if the earth knew how to conform and adapt its elements to the prolific principle of the seed, and from this to bring forth the germ, to expand the germ into a stem, from this to send forth branches and clothe them with leaves, then to embellish them with flowers to form the interiors of the flowers to form the rudiments of the fruit and bring it forth, and through the fruit, in order that it may be born again, to produce seed like offspring. But because these things from being seen continually and from their yearly recurrence, have become familiar, usual, and common, men do not regard them as anything wonderful, but as mere effects of nature; and they so think solely for the reason that they do not know that there is any spiritual world, and that it operates from within and actuates each and all things that come forth and take form in the world of nature and on the natural earth, operating as the human mind operates upon the senses and motions of the body; and that the particular things in nature are like tunics, sheaths, and clothing which engirdle spiritual things, and proximately produce effects correspondent to the end designed by God the Creator.
TCR 696. Fifth Memorable Relation:-
I once prayed to the Lord for permission to talk with the disciples of Aristotle, also with the disciples of Descartes and Leibnitz, in order that I might learn their views of the Intercourse between the Soul and the Body. When I had ceased praying, nine men approached, three of them disciples of Aristotle, three of Descartes, and three of Leibnitz; and they stood round about me,-the adorers of Aristotle on my left, at my right the followers of Descartes, and behind me the adherents of Leibnitz. Far away and widely separated from each other there seemed to be three men crowned with laurel, and by a perception flowing in from heaven, I recognized them as those great leaders or teachers themselves; while behind Leibnitz a man stood holding on to the skirt of his garment, who was said to be Wolff.
 When these nine men saw each other they at first saluted and spoke to each other in gentle tones. But just then a spirit with a torch in his right hand rose up from the lower regions, and waved the torch before their faces; and thereupon the three parties became enemies, and looked at each other with fierce countenances; for the lust of altercation and dispute seized them. The Aristotelians, who were also schoolmen, began by saying, "Who does not see that objects flow in through the senses into the soul, as one passes through a door into a chamber, and that the soul thinks in accordance with that influx? When the lover sees the beautiful virgin or bride does not his eye sparkle and hear the love of her to his soul? When a miser sees bags of money, is there not a burning for them in all his senses and from these is not this order transferred to his soul, exciting the desire to possess them? When a vain man hears another praising him, does he not prick up his ears, and do not these transmit the praises to his soul? Are not the senses of the body like entrance-halls, through which alone there is ingress to the soul? From these facts and innumerable others like them, who can draw any other conclusion than that influx is from nature, or is physical?"
 To these remarks the followers of Descartes, holding their fingers to their foreheads a while and then withdrawing them, replied by saying, "Alas you speak from appearances; do you not know that it is not the eye but the soul that loves the virgin or bride; and likewise that the senses of the body do not desire the money in the bags from themselves, but from the soul; and again, not otherwise do the ears drink in the praise of flatterers? Is not perception the cause of sensation? And perception belongs to the soul, not to the organ. Tell us, if you can, what is it but the thought that causes the tongue and lips to speak? And what is it but the will that causes the hand to work? Yet thought and will belong to the soul. So what is it but the soul that causes the eye to see, the ear to hear, and the other organs to feel, to attend to objects and turn toward them? From these facts and innumerable others like them anyone who is wise above the sensual things of the body concludes that influx is not from the body into the soul, but from the soul into the body; this we call occasional and also spiritual influx."
 On hearing this the three men who stood behind the former triads and who were adherents of Leibnitz, raised their voice and said, "We have heard the arguments of both sides and have compared them, and have perceived that in many respects the last arguments are the stronger, while in many other respects the first are the stronger. Therefore, with your permission we will settle the dispute."
When asked how they would do this, they said, "There is no influx of the soul into the body, nor of the body into the soul, but there is a unanimous and instantaneous operation of the two together, which a celebrated author has designated by the beautiful term, pre-established harmony."
 After all this the spirit again appeared with the torch in his hand, but this time in his left hand, and he waved the torch at the backs of their heads, whereby the ideas of all of them became confused, and they cried out, "Neither our souls nor our bodies know what side we should take; therefore let us decide the dispute by lot; we will adopt whichever comes out first."
And they took three pieces of paper, on one of which they wrote the words, Physical influx; on the second, Spiritual Influx; and on the third, Pre-established Harmony. They put the three papers in a cap, and chose one of their number to draw. He put his hand into the cap and drew out the paper on which was written, Spiritual Influx. When they saw this and read it, they all said,-some speaking in a clear and flowing and some in a faint and restrained tone, "We adopt that, because it came out first." But then an angel suddenly stood near and said, "Do not think that the paper that was for Spiritual Influx came out by chance; it came providentially; for you, with your confused ideas do not see its truth; but the truth offered itself to the hand of him who drew the lot, in order that you might adopt it."
TCR 697. Sixth Memorable Relation:-
I once saw not far from me a meteoric display. I saw a cloud divided into little clouds, some of which were blue, and some dark; and I saw them dashing against each other as it were, with rays of light glittering in streaks across them; which at one time appeared sharp like pointed swords, and again blunt like broken swords, now the streaks would shoot out at each other, and again they withdrew into themselves, exactly like combatants. In this way those differently colored clouds seemed to be fighting with each other, but it was only play. As this display did not seem to be far from me, I raised my eyes and looked at it carefully, and beheld boys, young men, and old men entering into a house built of marble on a foundation of porphyry. The phenomenon was over this house. I then spoke to one of those who were entering, and asked him what was there.
He replied, "It is a gymnasium, where youths are initiated into various matters pertaining to wisdom."
 Hearing this, I entered with them. I was in the spirit, that is, in a state like that of the inhabitants of the spiritual world, who are called angels and spirits. And behold, in the gymnasium opposite the entrance was a desk, in the center were benches, round about the sides were seats, and over the entrance was an orchestra The desk was for the youths who were to give answers to the problem to be proposed on that occasion; the benches were for the auditors, the seats at the sides for those who had answered wisely on former occasions, and the orchestra for older men, who were to be arbiters and judges. In the center of the orchestra was a pulpit, where a wise man, whom they called the head teacher was sitting, who proposed the problems to which the youths gave answer from the desk.
When they had assembled, the man arose in the pulpit and said, "Now please to answer this problem, and solve it if you can, What is the soul, and what is its nature?"
 All were amazed when they heard this, and murmured at it; and some of those seated on the benches exclaimed, "What man, even from the Saturnian age to our own, has been able by any rational thought to see and fully comprehend what the soul is, still less what the nature of it is? Is not this question above the sphere of the understanding of all men?"
But to this those in the orchestra replied, "The question is not above the understanding, but in and before it; only answer it."
And the youths who had been chosen for that day arose and went up to the desk and answered the problem. There were five of these who had been examined by the elders and found endowed with much sagacity, and who were then sitting on sofas near the desk, and who afterward went up to the desk in the order in which they sat. Each one as he went up put on a silk tunic of an opalic color, and over it a gown of fine wool inwoven with flowers, and also a cap, on the top of which was a rosette encircled by small sapphires.
 I saw the first one go up so clothed, and he said, "What the soul is and what its nature is, has not been revealed to any man since the day of creation; it is hidden in the treasure-house of God alone. But this much has been disclosed, that the soul has her seat in man like a queen; but where her court is, learned masters have but guessed; some, that it is in the small tubercle between the cerebrum and the cerebellum, which is called the pineal gland; in this they have fixed the seat of the soul because the whole man is governed from those two brains, and that tubercle regulates them; therefore, this, which regulates the brain at will, also regulates the entire man from head to foot. And this," he continued, "seemed therefore to be the truth or the probability to many in the world; but after their time it was rejected as a mere invention."
 When he had so spoken he put off the gown, tunic, and cap, and the second of those chosen put them on and entered the desk. His statement respecting the soul was that throughout all heaven and all the world it is not known what the soul is, or what its nature is. "This much," he said, "is known, that there is a soul and that it is in man, but where it is, is a matter of conjecture. This is certain, that it is in the head, for there the understanding thinks, and there the will intends, and in the fore-part of the head, that is, in the face, are man's five sensories; and the only source of life to all these is the soul which has its seat within the head. But where its court there is, I dare not say. Sometimes I agree with those who have assigned it a seat in the three ventricles of the brain, sometimes with those who assign it a seat in the copora-striata, sometimes with those who locate it in the medullary substance of both brains, or again with those who say it resides in the cortical substance, or with those who say it is in the dura mater; for evidences have not been lacking in favor of each of these locations; in favor of the three ventricles on the ground that these are the receptacles of the animal spirits and the different kinds of lymph belonging to the brain; in favor of the corporaus triata on the ground that they form the marrow through which the nerves go forth, and through which both brains are continued into the spinal column, and from this column and this substances the fibers emanate from which the whole body is woven; in favor of the medullary substance of both brains on the ground that this substance is a collection and mass of all the fibers that go to form the rudiments of the entire man; in favor of the cortical substance on the ground that first and last ends reside there, and therefore the beginning of all fibers, and thus of all sense and motions; in favor of the dura mater, on the ground that it is the common covering of both brains, and extends itself therefrom, by a kind of continuity, over the heart and over the viscera of the body. As for myself, I do not decide in favor of one more than another. Do you decide, I beg of you, and choose which you prefer."
 When he had said this he came down from the desk and handed the tunic, gown, and cap to the third, who stepped up to the desk and spoke as follows, "What has a youth like me to do with so sublime a problem? I appeal to the learned men sitting here beside me, I appeal to you wise men in the orchestra; I appeal even to the angels of the highest heaven, whether anyone from his own rational light can acquire for himself any idea respecting the soul. But respecting its seat in man, I can like others form conjectures; and my conjecture is that it has its seat in the heart, and therefrom in the blood. And this is my conjecture, because the heart by its blood rules both the body and the head; for it sends forth the great vessel called the aorta throughout the whole body, and the vessels called the carotid arteries into all parts of the head. Therefore it is universally agreed that the soul, from the heart through the blood, sustains, nourishes, and vivifies the whole organic system of both the body and the head. It adds credence to this assertion, that soul and heart are so frequently mentioned in Sacred Scripture, as,
That thou shalt love God with the whole soul and the whole heart, and that God creates in man a new soul and a new heart (Deut. 6:5; 10:12; 11:13; 26:16; Jer. 32:41; Matt. 22:37; Mark 12:30, 33; Luke 10:27 and elsewhere).
It is also openly stated that the blood is the soul of the flesh (Lev. 17:11, 14)." Some when they heard these remarks, cried out, "Learned, Learned!" These were of the canonical order.
 Then the fourth, having put on the vestments of the preceding speaker, stepped to the desk and said, "I too suspect that there is no man of so acute and cultivated a genius as to be able to see clearly what the soul is, and what its nature is; and I am therefore of the opinion that the acuteness of anyone who wished to pry into this subject will be exhausted without result. Nevertheless, from my boyhood I have held steadfastly to the belief of the ancients, that man's soul resides in the whole of him and in every part of this whole, and thus both in the head and each part of it, and in the body and each part of it; and that it is a useless invention of the moderns to assign it a seat, in anyone place, and not everywhere. Moreover, the soul is a spiritual substance, of which neither extension nor place can he predicated, but only habitation and impletion. Furthermore, does not everyone mean the life, when he says the soul? Does not the life reside in the whole and in every part?"
Many of the audience favored these remarks.
 After him the fifth arose and having put on the same vestments, he spoke from the desk as follows, "I will not stop to inquire where the soul is, whether in some part of the body or everywhere in the whole; but from my own store and larder I will open my mind respecting what the soul is and what is its nature. No one thinks of the soul except as a pure something which may be likened to ether or air or wind, in which there is a vital element arising from rationality, which man possesses in higher degree than the beasts. This opinion I have based upon the fact that when a man dies he is said to breath out his soul or give up the ghost, and therefore the soul as it lives after death is believed to be such a breath, having in it a cogitative life that is called the soul. What else can the soul be? But as I have heard some of those in the orchestra saying that the problem respecting the soul, what it is, and the nature of it, is not above the understanding, but in it and before it, I ask and pray that they themselves will open to us this eternal mystery."
 The elders in the orchestra then looked at the head teacher who had proposed that problem, and he understood by their nods that they wished him to descend and instruct them. And he at once descended from the pulpit, crossed the auditorium, and went into the desk; and there stretching forth his hand he said, "Listen, I pray. Who does not believe that the soul is man's inmost and finest essence? Yet what is an essence without a form but a mere figment of the reason? The soul is therefore a form, but what kind of a form shall be explained. It is the form of all things of love and all things of wisdom; all things of love are called affections, and all things of wisdom are called perceptions. These perceptions from their affections and with them constitute one form in which are innumerable things in such an order, series, and coherence and that they may be called a unit; and they may be called a unit because if it is to be such nothing can be taken from it or added to it. What is the human soul but such a form? Are not all things of love and all things of wisdom the essentials of that form? And in man these are in the soul, and from the soul in the head and body.
 You are called spirits and angels; and in the world you believed spirits and angels to be like wind or ether, and thus to be minds or dispositions; but now you see clearly that you are truly, really, and actually men, who in the world thought and lived in a material body; and you knew that it was not the material body that lives and thinks, but the spiritual substance in that body; and this you called the soul, although of its form you had no knowledge, and yet you have now seen it and still see it. All of you are souls, respecting the immortality of which you have heard, thought, spoken, and written so much; and being forms of love and wisdom from God, you can never die. Thus the soul is a human form, from which not an iota can be taken away, and to which not an iota can be added; and it is the inmost form of all the forms of the entire body. And as exterior forms receive both essence and form from the inmost form, so you, as you appear to yourselves and to us, are souls. In a word the soul is the man himself, because it is the inmost man; and therefore its form is fully and completely the human form. Yet it is not life, but the nearest receptacle of life from God, and thus God's dwelling-place."
 Many applauded these remarks: but some said, "We will think about it."
I then went home. And behold, in the place of the former meteoric display there appeared over the gymnasium a bright cloud, without any contending streaks or rays. This cloud penetrated the roof and brightened the walls; and I heard that they saw writings, among other things this:--
And Jehovah God formed man, and breathed into man's nostrils the breath of lives; and man became a living soul (Gen. 2:7).
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