< VI. Love Towards the Neighbor, or Charity ^ The New Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrine ^ VIII. Piety >

VII. Faith

HD 108. No one can know what faith is in its essence, unless he knows what charity is, because where there is no charity there is no faith, for charity makes one with faith as good does with truth. For what man loves or holds dear, this to him is good, and what man believes, this to him is truth; whence it is plain that there is a like union of charity and faith, as there is of good and truth; the quality of which union may appear from what has been said above concerning Good and Truth.

HD 109. The union of charity and faith is also like that of the will and the understanding with man; for these are the two faculties which receive good and truth, the will receiving good and the understanding truth; thus, also, these two faculties receive charity and faith, since good is of charity and truth is of faith. Every one knows that charity and faith are with man, and in him, and because they are with man, and in him, they must be in his will and understanding, for all the life of man is therein, and from thence. Man has also memory, but this is only the outer court, where those things are collected together which are to enter into the understanding and the will. Thence it is evident that there is a like union of charity and faith, as there is of the will and the understanding; the quality of which union may appear from what has been said above concerning the Will and the Understanding.

HD 110. Charity conjoins itself with faith with man, when man wills that which he knows and perceives; to will is of charity, and to know and perceive is of faith. Faith enters into man, and becomes his, when he wills and loves that which he knows and perceives; meanwhile it is without him.

HD 111. Faith does not become faith with man, unless it becomes spiritual, and it does not become spiritual, unless it becomes of the love; and it then becomes of the love, when man loves to live truth and good, that is, to live according to those things which are commanded in the Word.

HD 112. Faith is the affection of truth from willing truth because it is truth; and to will truth because it is truth is the spiritual itself of man; for it is abstracted from the natural, which is to will truth not for the sake of truth, but for the sake of one‘s own glory, reputation or gain. Truth withdrawn from such things is spiritual, because it is from the Divine. That which proceeds from the Divine is spiritual, and this is conjoined to man by love, for love is spiritual conjunction.

HD 113. Man may know, think, and understand much, but when he is left to himself alone, and meditates, he rejects from himself those things which do not agree with his love; and therefore he also rejects them after the life of the body when he is in the spirit, for that only remains in the spirit of man which has entered into his love: other things after death are regarded as foreign, and because they are not of his love he casts them out. It is said in the spirit of man, because man lives a spirit after death.

HD 114. An idea concerning the good which is of charity, and concerning the truth which is of faith, may be formed from the light and heat of the sun. When the light which proceeds from the sun is conjoined to heat, as is the case in the time of spring and summer, then all things of the earth germinate and flourish; but when there is no heat in the light, as in the time of winter, then all things of the earth become torpid and die; also spiritual light is the truth of faith, and spiritual heat is love. from these things an idea may be formed concerning the man of the church, what his quality is when faith with him is conjoined to charity, namely, that he is like a garden and paradise; and what his quality is when faith with him is not conjoined to charity, that he is like a desert and earth covered with snow.

HD 115. The confidence or trust, which is said to be of faith, and is called saving faith itself, is not spiritual confidence or trust, but natural, when it is of faith alone. Spiritual confidence or trust has its essence and life from the good of love, but not from the truth of faith separate. The confidence of faith separate is dead; wherefore true confidence cannot be given with those who lead an evil life. The confidence also that salvation is on account of the Lord’s merit with the Father, whatever a man‘s life may have been, is not from truth. All those who are in spiritual faith have confidence that they are saved by the Lord, for they believe that the Lord came into the world to give eternal life to those who believe and live according to the precepts which He taught, and that He regenerates them, and renders them fit for heaven, and that He alone does this from pure mercy without the aid of man.

HD 116. To believe those things which the Word teaches, or which the doctrine of the church teaches, and not to live according to them, appears as if it were faith, and some also assert that they are saved by it; but by this alone no one is saved, for it is persuasive faith, the quality of which shall now he stated.

HD 117. Faith is persuasive, when the Word and the doctrine of the church are believed and loved, not for the sake of truth and of a life according to it, but for the sake of gain, honor, and the fame of erudition, as ends; wherefore they who are in that faith, do not look to the Lord and to heaven, but to themselves and the world. They who in the world aspire after great things, and covet many things, are in a stronger persuasion that what the doctrine of the church teaches is true, that they who do not aspire after great things and covet many things: the reason is, because the doctrine of the church is to the former only a means to their own ends, and so far as the ends are coveted, so far the means are loved, and are also believed. But the case in itself is this: so far as they are in the fire of the loves of self and of the world, and from that fire speak, preach, and act, so far they are in that persuasion, and then they know no other than that it is so; but when they are not in the fire of those loves, then they believe little, and many not at all. Thence it is evident, that persuasive faith is a faith of the mouth and not of the heart, thus that in itself it is not faith.

HD 118. They who are in persuasive faith do not know, from any internal enlightenment, whether the things which they teach be true or false; yea, neither do they care, provided they be believed by the common people; for they are in no affection of truth for the sake of truth. Wherefore they recede from faith, if they are deprived of honors and gains, provided their reputation be not endangered. For persuasive faith is not hardly with man, but stands without, in the memory only, out of which it is taken when it is taught. Wherefore also that faith with its truths vanishes after death; for then there remains only that faith which is inwardly in man, that is, which is rooted in good, thus which has become of the life.

HD 119. They who are in persuasive faith are meant by these in Matthew:--

Many will say to me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied by Thy name, and by Thy name cast out demons, and in Thy name done many virtues? But then I will confess to them, I have not known you, ye workers of iniquity (Matt 7:22, 23).

Also in Luke:--

Then will ye begin to say, We have eaten before Thee, and have drunk, and Thou hast taught in our streets; but He will say, I say to you, I have not known you whence you are depart from Me all ye workers of iniquity (Luke 13:26, 27).

They are meant also by the five foolish virgins who had no oil in their lamps, in Matthew:--

At length came those virgins, saying, Lord, Lord, open to us; but He answering will say, Verily I say unto you, I have not known you (Matt 25:11, 12).

"The oil in the lamps" is the good of love in faith.


HD 120. They who do not know that all things in the universe have relation to truth and good, and to the conjunction of both, that anything may be produced, do not know that all things of the church have relation to faith and love, and to the conjunction of both, that the church may be with man (AC 7752-7762, 9186, 9224). All things in the universe, which are according to Divine order have relation to good and truth, and to their conjunction (AC 2452, 3166, 4390, 4409, 5232, 7256, 10122, 10555). Truths are of faith and goods are of love (AC 4352, 4997, 7178, 10367). This is the reason that good and truth have been treated of in this doctrine; wherefore from what has been adduced, it may be concluded respecting faith and love; and it may be known what their quality is when they are conjoined, and what it is when they are not conjoined, by putting love in the place of good, and faith in the place of truth, and making applications accordingly. They who do not know that each and all things in man have relation to the understanding and will, and to the conjunction of both, in order that man may be man, do not know clearly that all things of the church have relation to faith and love, and to the conjunction of both, in order that the church may be with man (AC 2231, 7752-7754, 9224, 9995, 10122). Man has two faculties, one of which is called the understanding and the other the will (AC 641, 803, 3623, 3539). The understanding is designed for receiving truths, thus the things of faith; and the will for receiving goods, thus the things of love (AC 9300, 9930, 10064). This is the reason why the will and the understanding have been also treated of in this doctrine; for from what has been adduced, conclusions may be drawn respecting faith and love, and it may be known what their quality is when they are conjoined, and what it is when they are not conjoined, by thinking of love in the will, and faith in the understanding. They who do not know that man has an internal and an external, or an internal and an external man, and that all things of heaven have relation to the internal man, and all things of the world to the external, and that their conjunction is like the conjunction of the spiritual world and the natural world, do not know what spiritual faith and spiritual love are (AC 4392, 5132, 8610). There is an internal and an external man, and the internal is the spiritual man, and the external the natural (AC 978, 1015, 4459, 6309, 9701-9709). Faith is so far spiritual, thus so far faith, as it is in the internal man; and love likewise (AC 1594, 3987, 8443). And so far as the truths which are of faith are loved, so far they become spiritual (AC 1594, 3987). This is the reason why the internal and the external man have been treated of, for from what has been adduced, conclusions may be drawn respecting faith and love, what their quality is when they are spiritual, and what when they are not spiritual; consequently how far they are of the church, and how far they are not of the church.

HD 121. Faith separate from love or charity is like the light of water, in which all things on earth are torpid, and no harvests, fruits, or flowers, are produced; but faith with love or charity is like the light of spring and summer, in who all things flourish and are produced (AC 2231, 3146, 3412, 3413). The wintry light of faith separate from charity is changed into dense darkness when light from heaven flows in; and they who are in that faith then come into blindness and stupidity (AC 3412, 3413). They who separate faith from charity, in doctrine and life, are in darkness, thus in ignorance of truth, and in falsities, for these are darkness (AC 9186). They cast themselves into falsities, and into evils thence (AC 3325, 8094). The errors and falsities into which they cast themselves (AC 4721, 4730, 4776, 4783, 4925, 7779, 8313, 8765, 9224). The Word is shut to them (AC 3773, 4783, 8780). They do not see or attend to all those things which the Lord so often spake concerning love and charity, and concerning their fruits, or goods in act, concerning which (AC 1017, 3416). Neither do they know what good is, nor thus what celestial love is, nor what charity is (AC 2517, 3603, 4136, 9995). Faith separate from charity is no faith (AC 654, 724, 1162, 1176, 2049, 2116, 2343, 2349, 2417, 3849, 3868, 6348, 7039, 7342, 9783). Such a faith perishes in the other life (AC 2228, 5820). When faith alone is assumed as a principle, truths are contaminated by the falsity of the principle (AC 2335). Such persons do not suffer themselves to be persuaded, because it is against their principle (AC 2385). Doctrinals concerning faith alone destroy charity (AC 6353, 8094). They who separate faith from charity were represented by Cain, by Ham, by Reuben, by the firstborn of the Egyptians, and by the Philistines (AC 3325, 7097, 7317, 8093). They who make faith alone saving, excuse a life of evil, and they who are in a life of evil have no faith, because they have no charity (AC 3865, 7766, 7778, 7790, 7950, 8094). They are inwardly in the falsities of their own evil, although they do not know it (AC 7790, 7950). Therefore good cannot be conjoined with them (AC 8981, 8983). In the other life they are against good, and against those who are in good (AC 7097, 7127, 7317, 7502, 7545, 8096, 8313). Those who are simple in heart and yet wise, know what the good of life is, thus what charity is, but not what faith separate is (AC 4741, 4754). All things of the church have relation to good and truth, consequently to charity and faith (AC 7752-7754). The church is not with man before truths are implanted in his life, and thus become the good of charity (AC 3310). Charity constitutes the church, and not faith separate from charity (AC 809, 916, 1798, 1799, 1834, 1844). The internal of the church is charity (AC 1799, 7755). Hence there is no church where there is no charity (AC 4766, 5826). The church would be one if all were regarded from charity, although men might differ as to the doctrinals of faith and the rituals of worship (AC 1285, 1316, 1798, 1799, 1834, 1844, 2385, 2982, 3267, 3451). How much of good would be in the church if charity were regarded in the first place, and faith in the second (AC 6269, 6272). Every church begins from charity, but in process of time turns aside to faith, and at length to faith alone (AC 1834, 1835, 2231, 4683, 8094). There is no faith at the last time of the church, because there is no charity (AC 1843). The worship of the Lord consists in a life of charity (AC 8254, 8256). The quality of the worship is according to the quality of the charity (AC 2190). The men of the external church have an internal if they are in charity (AC 1100, 1102, 1151, 1153). The doctrine of the ancient churches was the doctrine of life, which is the doctrine of charity, and not the doctrine of faith separate (AC 2385, 2417, 3419, 3420, 4844, 6628, 7259-7262). The Lord inseminates and implants truth in the good of charity when He regenerates man (AC 2063, 2189, 3310). Otherwise the seed, which is the truth of faith, cannot take root (AC 880). Then goods and truths increase, according to the quality and quantity of the charity received (AC 1016). The light of a regenerate person is not from faith, but from charity by faith (AC 854). The truths of faith, when man is regenerated, enter with the delight of affection, because he loves to do them, and they are reproduced with the same affection, because they cohere (AC 2484, 2487, 3040, 3066, 3074, 3336, 4018, 5893). They who live in love to the Lord, and in charity towards the neighbor, lose nothing to eternity, because they are conjoined to the Lord; but it is otherwise with those who are in separate faith (AC 7506, 7507). Man remains such as is his life of charity, not such as his faith separate (AC 8256). All the states of delight of those who have lived in charity, return in the other life, and are increased immensely (AC 823). Heavenly blessedness flows from the Lord into charity, because into the very life of man; but not into faith without charity (AC 2363). In heaven all are regarded from charity, and none from faith separate (AC 1258, 1394). All are associated in the heavens according to their loves (AC 7085). No one is admitted into heaven by thinking, but by willing good (AC 2401, 3459). Unless doing good is conjoined with willing good and with thinking good, there is no salvation neither any conjunction of the internal man with the external (AC 3987). The Lord, and faith in Him, are received by no others in the other life, than those who are in charity (AC 2343). Good is in the perpetual desire and consequent endeavor of conjoining itself with truths, and charity with faith (AC 9206, 9207, 9495). The good of charity acknowledges its own truth of faith, and the truth of faith its own good of charity (AC 2429, 3101, 3102, 3161, 3179, 3180, 4358, 5807, 5835, 9637). Hence there is a conjunction of the truth of faith and the good of charity, concerning which (AC 3834, 4096, 4097, 4301, 4345, 4353, 4364, 4368, 5365, 7623-7627, 7752-7762, 8530, 9258, 10555). Their conjunction is like a marriage (AC 1904, 2173, 2508). The law of marriage is that two be one, according to the Word of the Lord (AC 10130, 10168, 10169). So also faith and charity (AC 1094, 2173, 2503). Therefore faith which is faith, is, as to its essence, charity (AC 2228, 2839, 3180, 9783). As good is the esse of a thing, and truth the existere thence, so also is charity the esse of the church, and faith the existere thence (AC 3409, 3180, 4574, 5002, 9145). The truth of faith lives from the good of charity, thus a life according to the truths of faith is charity (AC 1589, 1947, 2571, 4070, 4096, 4097, 4736, 4757, 4884, 5147, 5928, 9154, 9667, 9841, 10729). Faith cannot be given but in charity, and if not in charity, there is not good in faith (AC 2261, 4368). Faith does not live with man when he only knows and thinks the things of faith, but when he wills them, and from will does them (AC 9224). There is no salvation by faith, but by a life according to the truths of faith, which life is charity (AC 379, 389, 2228, 4663, 4721). They are saved who think from the doctrine of the church that faith alone saves, if they do what is just for the sake of justice, and good for the sake of good, for thus they are still in charity (AC 2442, 3242, 3459, 3463, 7506, 7507). If a mere cogitative faith could save, all would be saved (AC 2361, 10659). Charity constitutes heaven with man, and not faith without it (AC 3513, 3584, 3815, 9832, 10714, 10715, 10721, 10724). In heaven all are regarded from charity, and not from faith (AC 1258, 1394, 2361, 4802). The conjunction of the Lord with man is not by faith, but by a life according to the truths of faith (AC 9380, 10143, 10153, 10310, 10578, 10645, 10648). The Lord is the tree of life, the goods of charity the fruits, and faith the leaves (AC 3427, 9337). Faith is the "lesser luminary," and good the "larger luminary" (AC 30-38). The angels of the Lord’s celestial kingdom do not know what faith is, so that they do not even name it, but the angels of the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom speak of faith, because they reason concerning truths (AC 202, 203, 337, 2715, 3246, 4448, 9166, 10786). The angels of the Lord’s celestial kingdom say only yea, yea or, nay, nay, but the angels of the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom reason whether it be so or not so, when there is discourse concerning spiritual truths, which are of faith (AC 2715, 3246, 4448, 9166, 10786), where the Lord’s words are explained:--

Let your discourse be yea, yea, nay, nay; what is beyond these is from evil (Matt 5:37).

The reason why the celestial angels are such, is, because they admit the truths of faith immediately into their lives, and do not deposit them first in the memory, as the spiritual angels do; and hence the celestial angels are in the perception of all things of faith (AC 202, 585, 597, 607, 784, 1121, 1387, 1398, 1442, 1919, 5113, 5897, 6367, 7680, 7877, 8521, 8780, 9936, 9995, 10124). Trust or confidence, which in an eminent sense is called saving faith, is given with those only who are in good as to life, consequently with those who are in charity (AC 2982, 4352, 4683, 4689, 7762, 8240, 9239-9245). Few know what that confidence is (AC 3868, 4352). What difference there is between believing those things which are from God, and believing in God (AC 9239, 9243). It is one thing to know, another to acknowledge, and another to have faith (AC 896, 4319, 5664). There are scientifics of faith, rationals of faith and spirituals of faith (AC 2504, 8078). The first thing is the acknowledgment of the Lord (AC 10083). All that flows in with man from the Lord is good (AC 1614, 2016, 2751, 2882, 2883, 2891, 2892, 2904, 6193, 7643, 9128). There is a persuasive faith, which nevertheless is not faith (AC 2343, 2682, 2689, 3427, 3865, 8148). It appears from various reasonings as though faith were prior to charity, but this is a fallacy (AC 3324). It may be known from the light of reason, that good, consequently charity, is in the first place, and truth, consequently faith, in the second (AC 6273). Good, or charity, is actually in the first place, or is the first of the church, and truth, or faith, is in the second place, or is the second of the church, although it appears otherwise (AC 3324, 3325, 3330, 3336, 3494, 3539, 3548, 3556, 3570, 3576, 3603, 3701, 3995, 4337, 4601, 4925, 4926, 4928, 4930, 5351, 6256, 6269, 6272, 6273, 8042, 8080, 10110). The ancients disputed concerning the first or primogeniture of the church, whether it be faith or whether it be charity (AC 367, 2435, 3324).

HD 122. The twelve disciples of the Lord represented the church as to all things of faith and charity in the complex, as did also the twelve tribes of Israel (AC 2129, 3354, 3488, 3858, 6397). Peter, James, and John represented faith, charity, and the goods of charity in their order (AC 3750). Peter represented faith (AC 4738, 6000, 6073, 6344, 10087, 10580). And John represented the goods of charity, (AC 2760). That there would be no faith in the Lord, because no charity, in the last time of the church, was represented by Peter‘s thrice denying the Lord before the cock crew the third time; for Peter there, in a representative sense, is faith; (AC 6000, 6073). "Cockcrowing," as well as "twilight," signifies in the Word the last time of the church (AC 10134). And "three" or "thrice," signifies what is complete to the end (AC 2788, 4495, 5159, 9198, 10127). The like is signified by the Lord’s saying to Peter, when Peter saw John follow the Lord:--

What is it to thee, Peter? follow thou Me, John; for Peter said of John, What is this? (John 21:21, 22);

(AC 10087). John lay on the breast of the Lord, because he represented the good of charity (AC 3934, 10081). The good of charity constitutes the church, is also signified by the words of the Lord from the cross to John:--

Jesus saw His mother, and the disciple whom He loved, who stood by, and He said to His mother, Woman, behold thy son: and He said to that disciple, Behold thy mother; and from that hour that disciple took her to himself (John 19:26, 27).

"John" signifies the good of charity, and "woman" and "mother," the church; and the whole passage signifies that the church will be where the good of charity is; that "woman" in the Word means the church (AC 252, 253, 749, 770, 3160, 6014, 7337, 8994). And likewise "mother" (AC 289, 2691, 2717, 3703, 4257, 5580, 8897, 10490). All the names of persons and places in the Word signify things abstractly from them (AC 768, 1888, 4310, 4442, 10329).

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